Oceanologia No. 46 (3) / 04


Invited paper



Invited paper

The distribution and tapping tidal energy
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 291-331

Zygmunt Kowalik
Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska,
Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA;
e-mail: ffzk@ims.uaf.edu

Keywords: tides, extreme tides, energy conservation, tidal power plants

Manuscript received 17 June 2004, reviewed 30 July 2004, accepted 19 August 2004.
Tidal power along tidal shores has been used for centuries to run small tidal mills. Generating electricity by tapping tidal power proved to be very successful only in the last century through the tidal power plant constructed in 1967 in La Rance, France. This used a large barrier to generate the sea level head necessary for driving turbines. Construction of such plants evolved very slowly because of prohibitive costs and concerns about the environmental impact. Developments in the construction of small, efficient and inexpensive underwater turbines admit the possibility of small scale operations that will use local tidal currents to bring electricity to remote locations. Since the generation of such electricity is concerned with the tidal energy in local water bodies, it is important to understand the site-specific energy balance, i.e., the energy flowing in through open boundaries, and the energy generated and dissipated within the local domain. The question is how to tap the tidal energy while keeping possible changes in the present tidal regimes to a minimum. The older approach of constructing barrages may still be quite useful in some locations. The basics of such tidal power plants constructed in a small bay are analyzed in order to understand the principal parameter for tidal plant evaluation, i.e., the power produced.
    The new approach is to place turbines - devices similar to windmills - in the pathway of tidal currents. Theoretically, the amount of power available by such turbines for electricity generation is proportional to the water density and velocity cubed of the tidal flow. The naturally dissipated tidal power due to bottom friction forces is also proportional to the cube of the velocity. Because of this similarity, the exploitation of tidal energy can be directed to reinvesting the naturally dissipated power into tidal power for the generation of electricity. This approach to tidal power exploitation is better tuned towards preservation of the natural tidal regime. To answer the many questions related to tidal regime changes, it is important to develop a new branch of tidal dynamics which will help to better understand the interaction between a natural tidal regime and future changes caused by tapping into tidal energy.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 3936 KB


Laser ablation studies of solid aerosols on the Baltic coast
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 333-345

Robert Jaworski1, 2,*, Tomasz Wróblewski1, Erwin Hoffmann2
1Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Pedagogical Academy,
Arciszewskiego 22b, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;
e-mail: robert@if.pap.edu.pl
2Institute of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy,
Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
*corresponding author

Keywords: cascade impactor, particle size distribution, LA ICP-MS

Manuscript received 17 March 2004, reviewed 21 June 2004, accepted 5 July 2004.
A Berner cascade impactor was used for the separation of solid urban aerosols in two localities of the Baltic coastal macro-region - Słupsk and Hel - in different seasons and weathers. Ten ranges of aerodynamic diameters between 0.009 and 8.11 µm were used. The elementary composition for each diameter was obtained in a complex procedure consisting of laser ablation of deposits, then their successive ionization in an inductively coupled plasma generator, and finally, mass selection in a quadrupole spectrometer. Despite its complexity, the chemical element analysis method proved to be versatile, allowing the identification air pollution from natural and industrial sources, and road traffic.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 257 KB

Preliminary results of lidar based studies of the aerosol vertical distribution in the lower troposphere over urban coastal areas
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 347-364

Marek Hałas1, Zdzisław Błaszczak1, Józef Grabowski2, Alexandros Papayannis3, Tymon Zieliński4
1Optics Division, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University,
Umultowska 85, PL-60-614 Poznań, Poland;
e-mail: halas@amu.edu.pl
2Institute of Physics, Technical University,
Nieszawska 13a, PL-60-965 Poznań, Poland
3Department of Physics, Technical University of Athens,
Athens, Greece
4Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland

Keywords: aerosol, vertical profile, urban area, lidar

Manuscript received 29 July 2004, reviewed 10 August 2004, accepted 16 August 2004.
The paper reports the results of lidar measurements performed in the lower troposphere during several measurement sessions in Athens (Greece) in 2000. For the sake of comparison, results of a similar study performed in Kołobrzeg (Poland) in 2001 are also given. These data indicate that the exhaust gases produced by motor transportation in the cities resulted in the formation of an inversion layer. The rate of convection of the inversion layer depends on the intensity of sunlight, the strength of winds and the morphology of the land. The inversion layer reaches the highest altitudes in the middle of summer, lower in early and late summer and the lowest in autumn. Over the sea the inversion layer altitude extends to several meters, but on moving inland it rises to a few hundred meters.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 209 KB

A laboratory study of breaking waves
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 365-382

Jarosław Tęgowski
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: tegowski@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: breaking waves, tank experiment

Manuscript received 23 March 2004, reviewed 2 August 2004, accepted 5 August 2004.

The experiment was funded by European Commission under the "Improving Human Potential Access Infrastructures" Programme number HPRI-CT-1999-00060.
This paper deals with some aspects of the wave-breaking phenomenon. The objectives were to study wave-breaking criteria, and the probability of whitecap coverage under fully controlled wave conditions. An additional task was to in vestigate the characteristic spectral features of the noise produced by breaking waves and the acoustic energy generated during wave breaking events. A controlled experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin Laboratory at MARINTEK, Trondheim (Norway). Waves were generated by a computer-controlled multi-flap wave maker, which reproduced a realistic pattern of the sea surface for the prescribed spectra. Using wave staff recordings and photographic techniques, correlations between the breaking parameters and the radiated acoustic emissions were established.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 1805 KB

Attenuation of wave-induced groundwater pressure in shallow water. Part 1
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 383-404

Stanisław R. Massel, Anna Przyborska, Michał Przyborski
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: smas@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: surface wave, pore water pressure, sandy beach, filtration

Manuscript received 31 May 2004, reviewed 28 June 2004, accepted 5 July 2004.
A coastal aquifer has a dynamic seaward boundary at the beach face where physical and ecological processes are influenced by oceanic water level fluctuations. Many basic groundwater concepts and the role of the impact of groundwater seepage on beach ecosystems are still poorly understood. Studies are needed to improve our understanding of the relationships between surface and subsurface flow processes on beaches. This is particularly helpful in clarifying the interaction of the physical processes, biodiversity and productivity of sandy beaches, sediment transport and coastal structure stability and modern beach nourishment techniques. As the estimation of infiltration into beach sand is very difficult to carry out under real sea conditions, a control led large-scale laboratory experiment was carried out in the Large Wave Channel in Hannover (Germany) as part of a project supported by the European Community (contract HPRI-CT-2001-00157). First part of the paper describes the technology applied in the experiment and reports some preliminary results.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 1221 KB

AChE levels in mussels and fish collected off Lithuania and Poland (southern Baltic)
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 405-418

Justyna Kopecka1, Aleksandras Rybakowas2, Janina Baršienė2, Janusz Pempkowiak1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: kopecka@iopan.gda.pl
2Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University,
Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lithuania
Keywords: Blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus), flounder (Platichthys flesus), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Gulf of Gdańsk, Klajpėda

Manuscript received 6 May 2004, reviewed 2 August 2004, accepted 9 August 2004.

This work was financially supported by the EU FP5 Program, Biological Effects of Environmental Pollution - BEEP. Contract No EVK3-CT-2000-00025.
AChE activities were measured in blue mussels gills and flounder muscles samples collected off Poland - the Gulf of Gdańsk (4 sampling stations) and off Lithuania - the Klajpėda area (3 sampling stations), in 2001 (June and October) and 2002 (April and October). The AChE activities [nmol min-1 mg protein-1] were in the range: 15-38 (in blue mussels) and 94-315 (in flounder), and agreed well with those reported for flounder in other coastal Baltic areas, and other European seas. Sources of contaminants in the study area are rather localized in the Gulf of Gdansk, (mouth of the Vistula due to runoff, ports, sewage discharges), while an accidental oil spill occurred off Lithuania, in the course of the study (November 2001). Geographical and temporal AChE levels changes followed the contamination pattern. AChE activities and gradients in the study area are well documented and confirmed in this study. The study confirms the potential use of AChE as biomarker of organic pollution.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 193 KB


Influence of humic substances on results of the spectrophotometric (TPTZ) analysis of monosaccharides
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 419-426

Waldemar Grzybowski*, Magdalena Dudzińska
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: grzyb@panda.bg.univ.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: monosaccharide, analysis, TPTZ, humic substances

Manuscript received 16 June 2004, reviewed 9 August 2004, accepted 19 August 2004.
A spectrophotometric method of monosaccharide analysis was assessed with regard to its non-selectivity towards humic substances. Analysis of model solutions showed that it responds positively to both marine and terrestrial humics. The systematic error in monosaccharide analysis (in glucose equivalents) was 0.18-0.20 mg per 1 mg of Aldrich humic acid and 0.11-0.12 mg per 1 mg of humic substances isolated from Gulf of Gdańsk water.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 114 KB

Interlaboratory analytical performance studies; a way to estimate measurement uncertainty
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 427-438

Elżbieta Łysiak-Pastuszak
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Maritime Branch,
Waszyngtona 42, PL-81-342 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: Elzbieta.Lysiak-Pastuszak@imgw.pl

Keywords: quality assurance, intercomparison exercises, nutrients in seawater, measurement uncertainty

Manuscript received 25 June 2004, reviewed 6 July 2004, accepted 16 July 2004.

The article was prepared within the framework of grant 5.1 of the Polish Committee for Scientific Research.
Comparability of data collected within collaborative programmes became the key challenge of analytical chemistry in the 1990s, including monitoring of the marine environment. To obtain relevant and reliable data, the analytical process has to proceed under a well-established Quality Assurance (QA) system with external analytical proficiency tests as an inherent component. A programme called Quality Assurance in Marine Monitoring in Europe (QUASIMEME) was established in 1993 and evolved over the years as the major provider of QA proficiency tests for nutrients, trace metals and chlorinated organic compounds in marine environment studies. The article presents an evaluation of results obtained in QUASIMEME Laboratory Performance Studies by the monitoring laboratory of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (Gdynia, Poland) in exercises on nutrient determination in seawater. The measurement uncertainty estimated from routine internal quality control measurements and from results of analytical performance exercises is also presented in the paper.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 144 KB

The size structure of the Mesodinium rubrum population in the Gdańsk Basin
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 439-444

Krzysztof Rychert
Sea Fisheries Institute, Kołłątaja 1, PL-81-332 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: krychert@mir.gdynia.pl

Keywords: Mesodinium rubrum, size distribution

Manuscript received 7 July 2004, reviewed 4 August 2004, accepted 16 August 2004.
The ciliate Mesodinium rubrum Lohmann 1908 (=Myrionecta rubra Jankowski 1976) is an important phototrophic organism in the Gdańsk Basin. In June 2002 the vertical distribution and size structure of the M. rubrum population were studied. Its presence was generally observed in the whole water column (one exception was the anoxic near-bottom zone in the Gdańsk Deep) at all stations studied. Maximum abundance (18300 cells dm-3) was recorded at 26 m depth at the station located in the inner Gulf of Gdańsk. Analysis of the size structure of the counted organisms demonstrated the co-existence of small and large cells of M. rubrum in the upper layer of the water column and a gradual increase with depth of the prevalence of large specimens. This shows that at least two forms of M. rubrum exist in the region studied. Deep migrations are probably undertaken only by relatively large organisms.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 154 KB

Development of a satellite method for Baltic ecosystem monitoring (DESAMBEM) - an ongoing project in Poland
Oceanologia 2004, 46(3), 445-455

Bogdan Woźniak1, Adam Krężel2, Jerzy Dera1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: wozniak@iopan.gda.pl
2Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland

Keywords: Baltic ecosystem, modelling primary production, remote sensing, monitoring, radiation, pigments

Manuscript received 25 June 2004, reviewed 20 July 2004, accepted 1 August 2004.

This paper was funded by the Polish State Committee for Scientific Research as part of grant No PZB-KBN 056/P04/2001. It was presented at the US - Baltic International Symposium: "Advances in Marine Environmental Research, Monitoring & Technologies", Klaipeda, June 15-17, 2004.
A large national project: Development of a satellite method for Baltic ecosystem monitoring (DESAMBEM) for creating mathematical models and a complex algorithm for the remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem and its primary production is described. The final aim of the project is the development of a routine remote sensing methodology for determining characteristics of the Baltic ecosystem such as distribution maps of surface temperature, water transparency, upwelling currents, phytoplankton blooms, radiation balance, pigment concentrations and primary production. The progress of the study and examples of results are presented.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 1701 KB