M A R I N E    B I O-O P T I C S

The research topic:


 The investigation and modelling
of the marine ecosystems
supplying with energy by photosynthesis


 The People:

Prof. Bogdan Wočniak

Prof. Jerzy Dera

Dr. Ryszard Hapter

Dr. Miros│awa Ostrowska

M.Sc. S│awomir Kaczmarek

M. Sc. Joanna Sto˝-Egiert

 Our works:

We deal with experimental studies and theoretical analysis of radiation fluxes in the sea-atmosphere system. Mainly we are interested in inherent and apparent optical properties of seawater components and their influence on solar energy distribution within water body especially the part of energy utilised in primary production process (Wočniak and Dera 2001).

We are able to model main radiant energy fluxes in the sea-atmosphere system
(monthly means of 15 energy fluxes for the Southern Baltic region)

(Wočniak et al. 1996,
Kaczmarek and Dera 1998).



Spatial distribution of solar energy absorbed in water body
in July

In the very centre of our concern are complex models of photosynthesis valid for all types of natural water (Wočniak et al. 1992, Dera 1995, Wočniak et al. 1997, Wočniak and Dera 2000). Such models are elaborated to estimate the primary production quantity by using remote sensing methods and to predict ecosystems functioning (Antal et al. 2001, Ostrowska 2001). In order to develop the models we are investigating and modelling:







Modelled spectra of downward attenuation coefficient







Specific light absorption by pigments in
photosynthetic apparatus of phytoplankton cells





The Fmax quantum yield of carbon fixation dependence on temperature and inorganic nitrogen concentration

 To achieve these aims we carry out the measurements of light attenuation coefficients, pigments concentration, absorption properties of water seawater components, primary production, fluorescence of phytoplankton photosynthetic apparatus. We have collaborated with scientists from PP Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS in Moscow and Department of Biophysics Faculty of Biology Moscow State University (Wočniak, 1991), and others. Our researches are performed within several international projects, e.g. BALTEX, BIOCOLOR.


Antal T.K., Venediktov P.S., Matorin D.N., Ostrowska M., Wočniak B., Rubin A.B., 2001, Measurement of phytoplankton photosynthesis rate using a pump-and-probe fluorometer, Oceanologia, 43(3), 291-313;

Dera J., 1995, Underwater irradiance as a factor affecting primary production, Dissertations and monographs, 7, Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, 110 pp.;

Ficek D., Majchrowski R., Ostrowska M., Wočniak B., 2000, Influence of non-photosynthetic pigments on the measured quantum yield of photosynthesis, Oceanologia, 42 (2);

Ficek D., Ostrowska M., Kuzio M., Pogosyan S. I., 2000, Variability of the portion of functional PS2 reaction centres in the light of fluorometric study, Oceanologia, 42 (2);

Ficek D., 2001, Modelowanie wydajnoťci kwantowej fotosyntezy w rˇ┐nych akwenach morskich, Rozprawy i monografie, Instytut Oceanologii PAN, Sopot, 224 pp., (in Polish);

Kaczmarek S., Wočniak B., 1995, The application of the optical classification of waters in the Baltic Sea investigation (Case 2 waters), Oceanologia 37 (2), 285-297;

Kaczmarek S., Dera J., 1998, Radiation flux balance of the sea-atmosphere system over the Southern Baltic Sea, Oceanologia, 40 (4), 1-30;

Majchrowski R., Ostrowska M., 2000, Influence of photo- and chromatic acclimation on pigment composition in the sea, Oceanologia, 42 (2);

Majchrowski R., Wočniak B., Dera J., Ficek D., Kaczmarek S., Ostrowska M., Koblentz-Mishke O. I., 2000, Model of the 'in vivo' spectral absorption of algal pigments. Part 2. Practical applications of the model, Oceanologia, 42(2), 191-202;

Majchrowski R., 2001, Wp│yw oťwietlenia na charakterystyki poch│aniania ťwiat│a przez fitoplankton w morzu, Pomorska Akademia Pedagogiczna w S│upsku, Studia i Rozprawy nr 1, 131 pp., (in Polish);

Ostrowska M., Majchrowski R., Matorin D. N., Wočniak B., 2000, Variability of the specific fluorescence of chlorophyll in the ocean. Part 1. Theory of classical `in situ' chlorophyll fluorometry, Oceanologia, 42 (2);

Ostrowska M., Matorin D. N., Ficek D., 2000, Variability of the specific fluorescence of chlorophyll in the ocean. Part 2. Fluorometric method of chlorophyll a determination, Oceanologia, 42 (2);

Ostrowska M., 2001, Zastosowanie fluorescencyjnych metod do bada˝ fotosyntezy w morzu, Rozprawy i monografie, Instytut Oceanologii PAN, Sopot, 194 pp., (in Polish);

Sto˝ J., Kosakowska A., 2002, Phytoplankton pigments designation ľ an application of RP-HPLC in qualitative and quantitative analysis, Journal of Applied Phycology, 14 (3), 205-210;

Sto˝ J., Kosakowska A., úotocka M., úysiak-Pastuszak E., 2002, Phytoplankton pigment composition in relation with biotic and abiotic factors, Oceanologia, 44 (4), 419-437;

Wočniak B., Ostrowska M., 1990, Optical absorption properties of phytoplankton in various seas, Oceanologia, 29, 117-146;

Wočniak B., 1991, Formation of the working group C-1. Application of physical (satellite and fluorescence) methods for studies of marine primary production and marine ecosystem functioning processes, (February 19-21, 1991, Sopot, Poland), Oceanologia, 30, 143-144;

Wočniak B., Pelevin V. N., 1991, Optical classifications of the seas in relation to phytoplankton characteristics, Oceanologia, 31, 25-55;

Wočniak B., Dera J., Koblentz-Mishke O.J., 1992, Modelling the relationship between primary production, optical properties, and nutrients in the sea, in: Ocean Optics XI, SPIE, 1992. v.1750, 246-275;

Wočniak B., Dera J., Semovski S., Hapter R., Ostrowska M., Kaczmarek S., 1995, Algorithm for estimating primary production in the Baltic by remote sensing, SiMO, 68 (8), 91-123;

Wočniak B., Rozwadowska A., Kaczmarek S., Wočniak S. B., Ostrowska M., 1996, Seasonal variability of the solar radiation flux and its utilisation in the South Baltic, Baltic Marine Science Conference, R÷nne, Denmark, 21-26 October;

Wočniak B., Dera J., Majchrowski R., Ficek D., Koblentz-Mishke O. I., Darecki M., 1997, PAS initial model of marine primary production for remote sensing application, Oceanologia, 39 (4), 377-395;

Wočniak B., Dera J., Ficek D., Majchrowski R., Kaczmarek S., Ostrowska M., Koblentz-Mishke O. I., 1998, Modelling the influence of photo- and chromatic - acclimation on the absorption properties of marine phytoplankton, Ocean Optics Conference, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 10-13 November 1998.

Wočniak B., Dera J., 2000, Luminescence and photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton - a brief presentation of new results, Oceanologia, 42 (2).

Wočniak B., Dera J., Ficek D., Majchrowski R., Kaczmarek S., Ostrowska M., Koblentz-Mishke O. I., 2000, Model of the `in vivo' spectral absorption of algal pigments. Part 1. Mathematical apparatus, Oceanologia, 42 (2), 177-190.

Wočniak B., Dera J., 2001, Bio-optical modelling of the photo-physiological properties of marine algae, Proceedings of St. Petersburg International Conference "Current problems in optics of natural waters" (ONW-2001), September 25-28, 2001, 39-49.

Wočniak B., Dera J., Ficek D., Ostrowska M., Majchrowski R., 2002, Dependence of the photosynthesis quantum yield in oceans on environmental factors, Oceanologia, 44 (4), 439-459;