Oceanologia No. 44 (1) / 02



Prof. Krzysztof Korzeniewski (Obituary)

Invited paper




The Editor would like to thank all who reviewed the papers submitted to OCEANOLOGIA in 2001.
The following reviewer's names are printed by their kind permission:
Prof. Gerassimos A. Athanassoulis (National Technical University of Athens, Greece • Assoc. Prof. Jerzy Bolałek (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Juliusz Chojnacki (Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Andrzej Dobek (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland) • Prof. Czeslaw Druet (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Lars Hagerman (University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark) • Prof. Krzysztof Haman (University of Warsaw, Poland) • Dr. Jack Hardy (Western Washington University, Bellingham, USA) • Mag. lic.et dr. scient. Niels K. Højerslev (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) • Prof. Tadeusz Jednoral (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw, Poland) • Prof. Sergey G. Karabashev (P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, Moscow, Russia) • Dr. Nalân Koç (Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway) • Dr. Jerzy Kołodko (Institute of Hydro-Engineering PAS, Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Zygmunt Kowalik (University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA) • Assoc. Prof. Adam Krezel (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Gotfryd Kupryszewski (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr. Patricio A. A. Laura, Prof. Emeritus (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina) • Dr. Iosif M. Levin (P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, St. Petersburg Branch, Russia) • Prof. Stanisław Massel (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr. Hanna Mazur-Marzec (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr. Andreas Moll (University of Hamburg, Germany) • Assoc. Prof. Krystyna Olańczuk-Neyman (Technical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Doc. Dr. Jerzy Olszewski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Janusz Pempkowiak (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Marcin Plinski (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Zbigniew Pruszczak (Institute of Hydro-Engineering PAS, Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr. Marko Reinikainen, Assist. Prof. (Umeå University, Sweden) • Prof. Henryk Renk (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Krzysztof Rolka (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr. Carlos A. Rossit, Assoc. Prof. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina) • Prof. Hiroshi Sakugawa (Hiroshima University, Japan) • Prof. Antoni Śliwiński (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Anna Szaniawska (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr. Tatiana Talipova (Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) • Doc. Dr. Roman Wenne (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Andrzej Witkowski (University of Szczecin, Poland) • Assoc. Prof. Bogdan Woźniak (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Maciej Zalewski (Institute of Ecology PAS, Łomianki, Poland) • Prof. Andrzej Zieliński (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr. Michał Ziemiański (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Gdynia, Poland) • Dr. Vera Zutic (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia)

Prof. Krzysztof Korzeniewski (Obituary)

Professor Krzysztof Korzeniewski – In Memoriam
(23 February 1930–28 October 2001)
On a cool, rainy, autumn day at the Słupsk cemetery, we paid our last respects to Professor Krzysztof Korzeniewski. Taking place when it did, on 31st October 2001, the eve of the celebration of All Saints' Day, his funeral left us in pensive and reflexive mood. He was close to our hearts, and we were privileged to be able to call ourselves his fellow-workers, colleagues and friends. And there we were, at the graveside of a man who had devoted his whole adult life to seeking the truth, educating new generations of students, organizing research activities, and undertaking the arduous task of studying and conserving the environment.
Krzysztof Korzeniewski was born on 23 February 1930 in Poznan; he studied at the Universities of Szczecin and Krakow. In 1965 he passed a significant milestone in his scientific career, when he gained his doctorate in the natural sciences at the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry of the Nicholas Copernicus University in Torun with his thesis on 'The hydrochemistry of the source Lake Jasien'. In 1972 he wrote his second doctoral dissertation on 'The pollution of the coastal waters of the Baltic on the Central (Polish) coast', and the oral examination took place before the same Faculty Council as seven years earlier. The chemistry of waters, not only inland waters, but increasingly, with the passage of time, sea waters, formed the nub of Professor Korzeniewski's research. This, along with his teaching and organizational activities, can be divided into two phases: the time spent in Słupsk and that in Gdańsk.
The first phase, covering the years 1972 to 1985, was at the Słupsk College of Education (now the Pomeranian Academy of Education), where he founded the Department of Chemistry within the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. He was Dean of this Faculty for two terms of office, and also deputy rector with responsibility for scientific research.
The second phase began in 1985. On moving to the University of Gdańsk, he carried on in the same vein. He undertook the difficult task of creating a Department of Marine Chemistry and Marine Conservation with the team from the Marine Chemistry Laboratory, which had earlier operated within the Department of Physical Oceanography. Moreover, he was soon elected Director of the Institute of Oceanography for two terms of office (1990–96), and concurrently discharged several functions at the University of Gdańsk, Polish Academy of Sciences and other scientific organizations.
To mention just a few of these functions: Professor Korzeniewski was a member of the Marine Research Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) since 1975, the deputy chairman of this Committee in 1980–90, and its chairman for one term of office from 1990 to 1992. He was, moreover, a member of the 'Man and Environment' Committee of PAS and of the governmental commission set up to compile a programme for the conservation of the Baltic environment; his expertise was called upon when the principles for monitoring the Baltic Sea were drawn up; from 1977 he was a member of the Scientific Committee of the Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, and of the Scientific Committee of the Marine Biology Centre PAS. Professor Korzeniewski served on the editorial boards of the journals 'Oceanologia', 'Studia i Materialy Oceanologiczne', and 'Oceanological Studies', to mention just the most important ones. He was an extremely active member of the Polish National IGBP Committee (Global Change), directly responsible to the board of PAS.
The fruits of Professor Korzeniewski's labours are perhaps best reflected in his many valuable papers (over 110), most of which were published in journals of international repute. The chief fields of interest that they covered include the ionic balance in the Baltic Sea, the spread of contaminants in the Baltic, the transformation of contaminants at the inland-sea water boundary and at the air-sea interface, and the eutrophication of lacustrine, riverine and sea waters. He also wrote a number of excellent university text-books: 'Hydrochemistry', 'The principles of chemical oceanography', 'The chemistry of the atmosphere ' (together with L. Falkowska), and 'Marine environmental protection'.
Krzysztof Korzeniewski played a signal part in formulating the curriculum at the Faculty of Oceanography of the University of Gdańsk, where he was one of the leading lecturers. He supervised over 7 M. Sc. theses of undergraduates specialising in hydrochemistry and four Ph. D. theses. Five staff members of the departments and research teams led by Professor Korzeniewski achieved their second doctoral degrees.
For his research and organisational activities, Professor Korzeniewski received numerous awards: he was made a Companion of the Order of Polonia Restituta, and he also received the Silver and Gold Crosses of Merit, the Medal of the National Committee of Education, and the Professor Kazimierz Demel Medal. He also received numerous prizes awarded by the Minister of National Education and the Rector of the University of Gdańsk.
Professor Krzysztof Korzeniewski inscribed himself in our memories as an honourable man, an outstanding scholar and university teacher, an indefatigable and efficient organiser. He made high demands of everyone, but especially of himself. He expected much of his colleagues, sometimes it seemed, too much. Nevertheless, by setting high standards, he motivated those around him to greater efforts and contributed to outstanding achievements in research and teaching; he was also instrumental in having those not up to university work at such a level removed from their posts. He encouraged his research colleagues to write scientific treatises, university textbooks and monographs. He was a widely respected university teacher and scholar, whose authority and ethical attitude were beyond reproach.
That is how we shall remember him.

Gdynia, 18. 02. 2002
Jerzy Cyberski

Invited paper

Inverse methods in hydrologic optics
Oceanologia 2002, 44 (1), 9-58

Howard R. Gordon
Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA; hgordon@miami.edu

Keywords: Radiative transfer, inverse methods, apparent optical properties, inherent optical properties, inelastic processes

Manuscript received 5 February 2002, accepted 11 February 2002.
Methods for solving the hydrologic-optics inverse problem, i.e., estimating the inherent optical properties of a water body based solely on measurements of the apparent optical properties, are reviewed in detail. A new method is developed for the inverse problem in water bodies in which fluorescence is important. It is shown that in principle, given profiles of the spectra of up- and downwelling irradiance, estimation of the coefficient of inelastic scattering from any wave band to any other wave band can be effected.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0)


Application of a sigma-coordinate baroclinic model to the Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2002, 44 (1), 59-80

Andrzej Jankowski
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstancow Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland; jankowsk@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: Baltic Sea, numerical modelling, sigma-coordinate model, hydrological parameters

Manuscript received 21 January 2002, reviewed 14 February 2002, accepted 18 February 2002.
A three-dimensional (3-D) sigma-coordinate baroclinic model is used to investigate water circulation and thermohaline variability in the Baltic Sea. Two versions of the horizontal resolution of ~ 10 km and ~ 5 km with 24 sigma-levels in the vertical are considered. The model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model code of Blumberg & Mellor (1987) and Mellor (1993), known as POM. This paper presents details of simulation strategies and briefly discusses the 'reality' of the results of modelling. The model's capabilities of simulating the characteristic hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were tested for 3 months (August-October 1995), a simulation related to the period of the PIDCAP'95 experiment (Pilot Study for Intensive Data Collection and Analysis and Precipitation) (Isemer 1996). The model results are compared with the in situ measurements of temperature and salinity at selected hydrographic stations, collected during cruises of r/v 'Oceania' in September and October 1995. Comparison of computed and measured temperature and salinity shows that the model reproduces the vertical structure of seawater temperature and salinity in relatively good accordance with the in situ observations. The differences between the calculated and observed values of temperature and salinity are c. 1-2oC and c. 1-2 PSU, depending on the location of the hydrographic station.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0)

Numerical studies of the influence of food ingestion on phytoplankton and zooplankton biomasses
Oceanologia 2002, 44 (1), 81-110

Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstancow Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland; dzierzb@iopan.gda.pl
Keywords: mathematical model, food ingestion, zooplankton as animals, phytoplankton

Manuscript received 21 January 2002, reviewed 4 February 2002, accepted 11 February 2002.
This paper presents the numerical simulations of the influence of food ingestion by a herbivorous copepod on phytoplankton and zooplankton biomasses (PZB) in the sea. The numerical studies were carried out using the phytoplankton-zooplankton-nutrient-detritus PhyZooNuDe biological upper layer model. This takes account both of fully developed primary production and regeneration mechanisms and of daily migration of zooplankton. In this model the zooplankton is treated not as a 'biomass' but as organisms having definite patterns of growth, reproduction and mortality. Assuming also that {Zoop} is composed ofi cohorts of copepods with weights Wi and numbers Zi, then {Zoop} = ∑WiZi.
The PhyZooNuDe model consists of three coupled, partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type for phytoplankton, zooplankton and nutrients, and one ordinary first-order differential equation for the benthic detritus pool, together with initial and boundary conditions. The calculations were made during 90 days (April, May and June) for the study area P1 (Gdańsk Deep) in an area 0<=z<=20 m with a vertical space step of 0.1 m and a time step of 300 s. The simulation given here demonstrated the importance of food ingestion by zooplankton in that it can alter the nature of the interactions of plants and herbivores. The analysis of these numerical studies indicate that the maximal ingestion rate and the half-saturation constant for grazing strongly affect the magnitude of the spring bloom and the cyanobacterial bloom, and also the total zooplankton biomass.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0)

An Autonomous Hydroacoustic System for studying long-term scattering variability
Oceanologia 2002, 44 (1), 111-122

Joanna Szczucka1, Kazimierz Groza1, Krzysztof Poraziński1, 2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstancow Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland; szczucka@iopan.gda.pl
2current affiliation: SEABED POLSKA Sp. z o.o. Legionów 72/1, PL-80-44 Gdańsk, Poland

Keywords: marine acoustics, scattering, diurnal vertical migration, Baltic Sea

Manuscript received 21 January 2002, reviewed 28 January 2002, accepted 7 February 2002.
A new instrument, an Autonomous Hydroacoustic System, was designed to probe a water column acoustically from the bottom to the sea surface. It is capable of operating from a depth of 100 m self sufficiently for up to 10 days. A brief description of its construction and electronic design is provided. Preliminary results from the first field study consisting of a 90-hour series of backscattering measurements are presented.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0)


The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis - an immigrant from Asia in the Gulf of Gdańsk
Oceanologia 2002, 44 (1), 123-125

Monika Normant1,*, Magdalena Chrobak1, Krzysztof Skóra2
1Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, al. Marszalka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland; monika.normant@ocean.univ.gda.pl
2Hel Marine Station, University of Gdańsk, ul. Morska 2, PL-84-150 Hel, Poland;
*current address: Institute for Biology/Zoology, Free University of Berlin, Königin-Luise-Strasse 1-3, D-14195 Berlin, Germany

Keywords: Crustacean, Eriocheir sinensis, exotic species, southern Baltic

Manuscript received 17 December 2001, reviewed 31 January 2002, accepted 1 February 2002.

The present paper reports the occurrence of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards, 1854 in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk, and attempts an initial characterization of the crabs occurring in this area.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0)