Oceanologia No. 56 (1) / 14



The Editor would like to thank every reviewer who cooperated by evaluating the papers submitted to Oceanologia in 2013.




Simple statistical formulas for estimating biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter in the southern Baltic Sea potentially useful for optical remote sensing applications
Oceanologia 2014, 56(1), 7-39

Sławomir B. Woźniak
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: woznjr@iopan.gda.pl

keywords: Biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter, light absorption and backscattering coefficients, remote-sensing reflectance

Received 6 June 2013, revised 8 October 2013, accepted 16 October 2013.

Financial support for this research was provided by Statutory Research Programme No. I.1 at the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, by research grant No. NN306 2838 33 awarded to Sławomir B. Woźniak by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, and by the "SatBałtyk" project funded by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund (contract No. POIG.01.01.02-22-011/09 entitled "The Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment").


Simple statistical formulas for estimating various biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter in the southern Baltic Sea are presented in this paper. These include formulas for estimating mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic matter (POM), particulate organic carbon (POC) and total chlorophyll a (Chl a). Two different approaches have been adopted. The first approach was to use the available empirical material (the results of field measurements and laboratory analyses of discrete water samples) and find statistical formulas for estimating the biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter from those of inherent optical properties (IOPs), which are potentially retrievable from remote sensing measurements. The second approach was to find formulas that would enable biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter to be estimated directly from spectral values of the remote-sensing reflectance Rrs. The latter was based on statistical analyses of a synthetic data set of Rrs obtained from numerical simulations of radiative transfer for which the available empirical material on seawater IOPs and biogeochemistry served as input data. Among the empirical formulas based on seawater IOPs that could be used as a step in two-stage remote sensing algorithms (the other step is estimating certain IOPs from reflectance), the best error statistics are found for estimates of SPM and POM from the particulate backscattering coefficient bbp in the blue region of light wavelengths (443 nm), and for estimates of POC and Chl a from the coefficient of light absorption by the sum of all non-water (i.e. suspended and dissolved) constituents of seawater an, in the blue (443 nm) and green (555 nm) parts of the spectrum respectively. For the semi-empirical formulas under consideration, which could serve as starting points in the development of local one-stage (direct) remote sensing algorithms, the best error statistics are found when SPM, POM and POC are estimated from the same blue-to-red band reflectance ratio (Rrs (490)/ Rrs(645)) (with estimated SPM reaching a better precision than estimated POM and POC), and when Chl a is estimated from the green-to-red band ratio (Rrs(555)/Rrs(645)).

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Biometry and reproductive biology of Pseudonereis anomala Gravier 1901 (Polychaeta: Nereididae) on the Alexandria coast, Egypt
Oceanologia 2014, 56(1), 41-58

Rasha Hamdy, Mohamed Moussa Dorgham*, Hoda Hassan El-Rashidy, Manal Mohamed Atta
Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University,
Alexandria, 21511, Egypt;
e-mail: mdorgham1947@yahoo.com
*corresponding author

keywords: Polychaete reproduction, Pseudonereis anomala, fecundity, biometry, length-weight relationship

Received 13 June 2013, revised 14 November 2013, accepted 31 December 2013.


The biometric characteristics and reproductive biology of the nereid polychaete Pseudonereis anomalawere studied monthly from August 2009 to July 2010 at two ecologically different sites (Abu-Qir and El-Mex) on the Alexandria coast, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea. The maximum body length and weight showed different values at the two sites: 9.8 and 11.9 cm, and 0.77 and 1.3 g respectively. The formula of the length-weight relationship indicated allometric growth, whereas the regression equation between length to the 6th segment and weight reflected isometric growth. Immature individuals were the major component of the worm population at the two sites, making up 69.1% at Abu Qir and 66.9% at El Mex; the respective percentages of males and females at these sites were 5.8-8.1% and 22.8-27.3%. Spawning was observed all the year round with female fecundity conspicuously lower at Abu-Qir (annual average: 26556 ± 999 eggs per female) than at El-Mex (annual average: 47955 ± 2916 eggs per female). However, oocyte size was greater at Abu Qir (diameter: up to 250 µm) than at El Mex (diameter: up to 220 µm).

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Principal Component and Cluster Analysis for determining diversification of bottom morphology based on bathymetric profiles from Brepollen (Hornsund, Spitsbergen)
Oceanologia 2014, 56(1), 59-84

Mateusz Moskalik1, Jarosław Tęgowski2, Piotr Grabowiecki1, Monika Żulichowska3
1Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Księcia Janusza 64, 01-452 Warsaw, Poland;
e-mail: mmosk@igf.edu.pl
e-mail: graba@igf.edu.pl
2Department of Oceanography and Geography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: j.tegowski@ug.edu.pl
3Department of Biology and Earth Sciences, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków, Poland;
e-mail: m_zulik@interia.pl

keywords: Fjord morphology, Brepollen, Hornsund, Svalbard, Principal Component and Cluster Analyses

Received 24 May 2013, revised 24 September 2013, accepted 3 October 2013.

The project was partly supported by The Polish Ministry of Sciences and Higher Education Grant No. N N525 350038.


Navigation charts of the post-glacial regions of Arctic fjords tend not to cover regions from which glaciers have retreated. Whilst research vessels can make detailed bathymetric models using multibeam echosounders, they are often too large to enter such areas. To map these regions therefore requires smaller boats carrying single beam echosounders. To obtain morphology models of equivalent quality to those generated using multibeam echosounders, new ways of processing data from single beam echosounders have to be found. The results and comprehensive analysis of such measurements conducted in Brepollen (Hornsund, Spitsbergen) are presented in this article. The morphological differentiation of the seafloor was determined by calculating statistical, spectral and wavelet transformation, fractal and median filtration parameters of segments of bathymetric profiles. This set of parameters constituted the input for Principal Component Analysis and then in the form of Principal Components for the Cluster Analysis. As a result of this procedure, three morphological classes are proposed for Brepollen: (i) steep slopes (southern Brepollen), (ii) flat bottoms (central Brepollen) and gentle slopes (the Storebreen glacier valley and the southern part of the Hornbreen glacier valley), (iii) the morphologically most diverse region (the central Storebreen valley, the northern part of the Hornbreen glacier valley and the north-eastern part of central Brepollen).

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Sediment deposition and accumulation rates determined by sediment trap and 210Pb isotope methods in the Outer Puck Bay (Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2014, 56(1), 85-106

Angelika Szmytkiewicz1,*, Tamara Zalewska2,
1Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: oceaszm@ug.edu.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute, Maritime Branch,
J. Waszyngtona 42, 81-342 Gdynia, Poland

keywords: Sedimentation rates, sediment trap, 210Pb isotope methods, outer Puck Bay, Baltic Sea

Received 22 March 2013, revised 30 August 2013, accepted 9 October 2013.


Two methods - in situ sediment trap experiments and an isotopic method based on measurements of 210Pb activities in the sediment cores taken near the traps - were applied for determining sediment deposition and sediment accumulation rates in the eastern part of Puck Bay. The sediment deposition rate (1.67 mm year-1) based on the in situ measurement was comparable with the sediment accumulation rate calculated using the Constant Flux:Constant Sedimentation Rate model for the isotopic method. The age of the sediment layers was determined with the Constant Rate of Supply model; the deepest layers had accumulated around 1900.

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Effect of accessory pigment composition on the absorption characteristics of a dinoflagellate bloom in a coastal embayment
Oceanologia 2014, 56(1), 107-124

Anil Kumar Vijayan1,*, Srikanth Ayyala Somayajula2,3
1Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE),
Ministry of Earth Sciences, Cochin, India;
e-mail: anilkumarv@cmlre.gov.in
*corresponding author
2Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), "Ocean Valley",
Pragathi Nagar (BO), Nizampet (SO)Hyderabad–500090
3Present address: Takuvik Joint UL/CNRS Laboratory Program, Department of Biology, Laval University,
1045 Av. de la Médecine, 2078, Quebec G1V 0A6, Canada

keywords: Specific absorption coefficient, HPLC, Derivative analysis, NPP index

Received 7 January 2013, revised 15 October 2013, accepted 27 November 2013.


The light absorption properties of a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans Macartney) bloom in Manila Bay were analysed during the onset of a whole-bay-scale bloom in March 2004. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied over a very wide range from 1.4 µg l-1 to extremely high values of 521 µg l-1. The chlorophyll specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a*ph(λ)) varied significantly in shape and magnitude. The spectrally averaged values of a*ph(λ) varied by two orders of magnitude within and outside the bloom patch. The total suspended solid concentration was high in the middle of the bay (≥4 mg l-1).The non-photosynthetic pigment (NPP) index was ~0.6 at most of the stations, mainly due to the presence of photoprotective pigments like zeaxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin, which led to variations in the blue absorption maxima of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients. The absorption properties of the accessory pigments were masked owing to the presence of overlapping pigment absorption bands. The fourth derivative of the absorption spectra was able to resolve these overlapping features and enhance the absorption characteristics of prominent accessory pigments.

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Non-native crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould, 1984) - a new component of the benthic communities in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2014, 56(1), 125-139

Joanna Hegele-Drywa*, Monika Normant
Department of Experimental Ecology of Marine Organisms, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: ocejhd@ug.edu.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: Harris mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, non-native species, distribution, Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea

Received 24 May 2013, revised 24 September 2013, accepted 3 October 2013.

This research was funded by the Polish National Science Centre, grant No.3016/B/PO1/2011/40.


The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution and abundance pattern of the Harris mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea). Between 2006 and 2010, this species was found at 69 out of 129 sampling stations, at depths from 0 to 20 m. Two main aggregations of the Harris mud crab were established: (1) in Puck Bay (max. density 19 indiv. 100 m-2) and (2) in the Gdynia and Sopot area (max. density 5 indiv. 100 m-2). 920 specimens were collected during the whole sampling period: 150 juveniles, 370 females and 400 males. The minimum measured carapace width was 1.96 mm, the maximum 21.40 mm (mean 9.03 ±4.11 mm).

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Evadne anonyx G. O. Sars, 1897 - the first record of this Ponto-Caspian cladoceran in the Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2014, 56(1), 141-150

Luiza Bielecka*, Stella Mudrak-Cegiołka, Marcin Kalarus
Department of Marine Plankton Research, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: ocelb@univ.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: Evadne anonyx, non-indigenous species, Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic Sea

Received 24 April 2013, revised 2 September 2013, accepted 9 October 2013.

This research was conducted within the framework of project No. 4739/B/P01/2010/39 from the Polish National Sciences Centre.


Evadne anonyx, a new invasive Ponto-Caspian species, was detected for the first time in the Gulf of Gdańsk in the summer of 2006. Seven years probably elapsed from the first record of E. anonyx in the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) to the first one in the Gulf of Gdańsk. Although the species was found at 10 out of 13 stations in rather low densities (not exceeding 6 indiv. m-3), all the developmental stages of E. anonyx werepresent (juveniles as well as adults - parthenogenetic females, gamogenetic females and males) in the plankton material investigated.

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First record of a new alien species Limnodrilus cervix Brinkhurst, 1963 (Annelida, Clitellata) in the Vistula Lagoon (Southern Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2014, 56(1), 151-158

Elżbieta Dumnicka1, Izabela Jabłońska-Barna2,*, Agata Rychter3
1Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences,
al. A. Mickiewicza 33, 21--120 Kraków, Poland
2University of Warmia & Mazury, Faculty of Environmental Sciences,
M. Oczapowskiego 5, 10--719 Olsztyn, Poland;
e-mail: ijpb@uwm.edu.pl
*corresponding author
3The State School of Higher Professional Education in Elbląg, Institute of Technology,
Wojska Polskiego 1, 82--300 Elbląg, Poland

keywords: Alien Limnodrilus species, Vistula Lagoon

Received 19 June 2013, revised 7 November 2013, accepted 10 January 2014.


The present work reports the first record of Limnodrilus cervix in the south-eastern part of the Baltic Sea. A specimen of this North American species was found in 2010 in the Vistula Lagoon, near the village of Piaski (Poland). The distribution of other Nearctic Limnodrilus species in Europe is also presented.

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First record of brown colouration of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, L.) from the North Sea
Oceanologia 2014, 56(1), 159-163

Agnieszka Rybczyk1,*, Przemysław Czerniejewski2, Joanna Rokicka-Praxmajer3
1Department of Aquatic Sozology, West Pomeranian University of Technology,
Kazimierza Królewicza 4, 71-550 Szczecin, Poland;
e-mail: arybczyk@zut.edu.pl
*corresponding author
2Department of Fisheries Management, West Pomeranian University of Technology,
Kazimierza Królewicza 4, 71-550 Szczecin, Poland
3Department of Marine Ecology and Environmental Protection, West Pomeranian University of Technology,
Kazimierza Królewicza 4, 71-550 Szczecin, Poland

keywords: North Sea, Gadus morhua, skin colour, brown cod

Received 25 June 2013, revised 17 October 2013, accepted 26 November 2013.


This paper reports the biological characterisation of a specimen of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) with a unique brown colour, which is the first fish of this species with such a colouration recorded from European waters. It was caught in the coastal zone of the North Sea in June 2011. This "brown" cod fish weighed 1074.3 g and had an overall length of 422 mm.

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