Oceanologia No. 54 (1) / 12





Influence of underwater light fields on pigment characteristics in the Baltic Sea - results of statistical analysis
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(1), pp. 7-27

Joanna Stoń-Egiert1,*, Roman Majchrowski2, Mirosław Darecki1, Alicja Kosakowska1, Mirosława Ostrowska1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: aston@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Physics, Pomeranian University in Słupsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, Gdynia 81-378, Poland;

keywords: pigments, phytoplankton, underwater irradiance, statistical analysis, Baltic Sea

Received 6 September 2011, revised 25 November 2011, accepted 2 January 2012.

This work was carried out within the framework of the SatBałtyk project funded by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund, (contract No. POIG.01.01.02-22-011/09 entitled "The Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment"), research project NN 304 275235 and also as part of IO PAS's statutory research.


Changes in phytoplankton pigment concentrations in Case 2 waters (such as those of the Baltic Sea) were analysed in relation to the light intensity and its spectral distribution in the water. The analyses were based on sets of empirical measurements containing two types of data: chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations obtained by HPLC, and the distribution of underwater light fields measured with a MER 2049 spectrophotometer - collected during 27 research cruises on r/v "Oceania" in 1999-2004. Statistical analysis yielded relationships between the total relative (to chlorophyll a concentrations) concentrations of major groups of phytoplankton pigments and optical depth τ, between the total relative concentrations of major groups of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls b (Cchl b tot / Cchl a tot), chlorophylls c (Cchl c tot / Cchl a tot) and photosynthetic carotenoids (CPSC tot / Cchl a tot)) and the spectral fitting function (the "chromatic acclimation factor"), and between the total relative concentrations of photoprotective carotenoids (CPPC tot / Cchl a tot) in Baltic waters and the potentially destructive radiation (PDR), defined as the absolute amount of energy in the blue part of the spectrum (400-480 nm) absorbed by unit mass of chlorophyll a. The best approximations were obtained for the total chlorophyll c content, while the relative estimation errors were the smallest (σ_ = 34.6%) for the approximation to optical depth and spectral fitting function. The largest errors related to the approximation of chlorophyll b concentrations: σ_ = 56.7% with respect to optical depth and 57.3% to the spectral fitting function.
     A comparative analysis of the relative (to chlorophyll a content) concentrations of the main groups of pigments and the corresponding irradiance characteristics in ocean (Case 1) waters and Baltic waters (Case 2 waters) was also carried out. The distribution of Cchl b tot / Cchl a tot ratios with respect to optical depth reveals a decreasing trend with increasing τ for Baltic data, which is characteristic of photoprotective pigments and the reverse of the trend in oceans. In the case of the Cchl c tot approximations, the logarithmic statistical error is lower for Baltic waters than for Case 1 waters: σ_ = 34.6% for Baltic data and σ_ = 39.4% for ocean data. In relation to photoprotective carotenoids (CPPC), σ_ takes a value of 38.4% for Baltic waters and 36.1% for ocean waters. The relative errors of the approximated concentrations of different pigment groups are larger than those obtained for ocean waters. The only exception is chlorophyll c, for which the logarithmic statistical error is about 8.8% lower (σ_ = 34.6% for Baltic waters and 38.2% for ocean waters). Analysis of the errors resulting from the approximations of the photoprotective carotenoid content, depending on the energy characteristics of the underwater irradiance in the short-range part of PAR, showed that the relative errors are 1.3 times higher for Baltic waters than for ocean waters: σ_ = 38.4% for Baltic waters and 32.0% for ocean waters.

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Revisiting the role of oceanic phase function in remote sensing reflectance
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(1), pp. 29-38

Włodzimierz Freda1,*, Jacek Piskozub2
1Gdynia Maritime University,
Morska 81-87, Gdynia 81-225, Poland;
e-mail: wfreda@am.gdynia.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;

keywords: marine optics, phase functions, remote sensing reflectance, scattering

Received 30 August 2011, revised 3 November 2011, accepted 19 December 2011.


The effect of angular structure differences between measured and best-fit analytical phase functions of the equivalent backscattering ratio on calculated reflectance values was studied and shown to be significant. We used a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to check the effect of choosing different analytical (several Fournier-Forand (1994) and Henyey-Greenstein (1941)) phase functions with backscattering ratios identical to the "classical" average Petzold function. We show that the additional variability of the resulting water leaving radiance is about 7% (4% between the Fournier-Forand functions themselves) for most scenarios. We also show a previously unknown maximum of the discrepancy (up to 10%) for highly scattering waters. We discuss the importance of relative differences in phase function for different angular ranges to this maximum and to the behaviour of the discrepancy as a function of solar zenith angle.

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Transformation of statistical and spectral wave periods crossing a smooth low-crested structure
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(1), pp. 39-58

Dalibor Carevic*, Goran Loncar, Marko Prsic
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb,
Kaciceva 26, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;
e-mail: car@grad.hr
*corresponding author

keywords: smooth submerged breakwater, wave period transformation, statistical wave parameters, spectral wave parameters, smooth emerged breakwater

Received 6 June 2011, revised 28 November 2011, accepted 12 December 2011.


We carried out experimental studies of a smooth submerged breakwater in a wave channel in order to study such a structure impacts on the changes of statistically and spectrally defined representative wave periods as waves cross it. We discuss the impact of relative submersion, i.e. the relationship between the breakwater crown submersion and the incoming significant wave length Rc / Ls-i, on the representative wave periods. The mean periods, estimated using statistical and spectral methods, were compared in front of and behind the breakwater: the two periods turned out to be identical. Based on the measurements of the spectral mean wave periods in front of and behind the breakwater, an empirical model is derived for estimating the reduction in mean spectral period for submerged and emerged smooth breakwaters.

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Some features of the quantitative distribution of sipunculan worms (Sipuncula) in the central and southern Barents Sea
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(1), pp. 59-74

Evgeny A. Garbul1,*, Natalia A. Anisimova2
1Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Kola Science Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences,
Vladimirskaya St. 17, Murmansk 183010, Russia;
e-mail: Garbul@mmbi.info
*corresponding author
2Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO),
Knipovich St. 6, Murmansk 183763, Russia

keywords: Sipuncula, biodiversity, distribution, Barents Sea

Received 25 July 2011, revised 26 September 2011, accepted 30 November 2011.

This research was carried out by authority of the federal task programme "World Ocean".


The article reports on the current state of the sipunculan fauna of the central and southern parts of the Barents Sea. The main quantitative parameters (biomass and abundance) of the sipunculan populations are obtained, and the contribution of sipunculids to the total benthos biomass is assessed. The major factors causing long-term variations in Sipunculidae distribution and abundance are evaluated for the area in question.
     The investigations show that the most commonly encountered sipunculan species are Nephasoma diaphanes diaphanes, N. abyssorum abyssorum and Phascolion strombus strombus. The main contribution to the total benthos biomass comes from the two species most typical of the Barents Sea benthic fauna: Golfingia margaritacea margaritacea and G. vulgaris vulgaris. It is possible that the reduction in Golfingia biomass between the 1970s and 1990s, described in the article, is due to changes in the sampling methodology.

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Spring development of hydrolittoral rock shore communities on wave-exposed and sheltered sites in the northern Baltic proper
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(1), pp. 75-107

Ann-Kristin Eriksson Wiklund1,*, Torleif Malm2, Jessica Honkakangas3, Britta Eklund1
1Department of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), University of Stockholm,
S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden;
e-mail: annkristin.eriksson@itm.su.se
*corresponding author
2Stockholm Marine Sciences Centre, University of Stockholm,
S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
3Department of Botany, University of Stockholm,
S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden

keywords: community structure, diversity, seasonal community, development, Filamentous algae, macroinvertebrates

Received 25 July 2011, revised 17 October 2011, accepted 5 December 2011.


Spring development in the hydrolittoral zone was investigated at five wave-sheltered and five wave-exposed sites on four occasions from late March to late May (every third week). The number of species was higher at the sheltered locations and increased significantly over time. The difference in community structure was significant: over 95% of the Bray-Curtis dissimilarities were due to the biomass of only eleven taxa, and the total Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between exposed and sheltered sites was 75%. Macroalgae made up 70-80% of the total biomass and was dominated by filamentous species. In contrast to previous studies, macroalgal biomass was higher at the exposed sites, which may be due to the fact that this was a~spring study, unlike previous studies, which were conducted during summer.

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Potential risk of Mesodinium rubrum bloom in aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove, China: diurnal changes in the ciliate community structure in the surface water
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(1), pp. 109-117

Huaxue Liu1,2, Xingyu Song1,*, Liangmin Huang1, Yehui Tan1, Yu Zhong1, Jian Rong Huang3
1Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-Resources Sustainable Utilization,
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Guangzhou 510301, China
e-mail: songxy@scsio.ac.cn
*corresponding author
2South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fisheries Sciences,
Guangzhou 510300, China;
3School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University,
Guangzhou 510275, China

keywords: ciliates, Dapeng'ao cove, Mesodinium rubrum, bloom

Received 6 June 2011, revised 28 November 2011, accepted 12 December 2011.

This research was supported by the Key Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KZCX2-YW-Q07, KZCX2-YW-T001, SQ200805), National Nature Science Foundation of China (40906057, 41130855) and Special Project of the Social Common Wealth Research of the National Science Research Institute (South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences) (No. 2011TS06).


Diurnal changes in the structure of the ciliate community in surface waters were studied in the aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove, China. Two periods of heavy rainfall occurred during the study period, intensifying water column stratification and influencing the water's properties. A total of 21 ciliate taxa from 15 genera were identified; the dominant species was Mesodinium rubrum. The maximum abundance of M. rubrum reached 3.92 × 104 indiv. dm-3, contributing 95.1% (mean value) to the total ciliate abundance. Diurnal changes in M. rubrum abundance were highly variable, the driving force probably being irradiance and food availability. The results suggest that M. rubrum may form blooms in aquaculture areas when there is a suitable physical regime with enriched nutrients, which is potentially harmful to the fish-farming industry.

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