Oceanologia No. 51 (4) / 09






Computation of energy for diapycnal mixing in the Baltic Sea due to internal wave drag acting on wind-driven barotropic currents
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(4), pp. 461-494

Christian Nohr1, Bo G. Gustafsson2
1Department of Earth Science,
University of Gothenburg,
Box 460, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden;
e-mail: chno@oce.gu.se
*corresponding author
2Baltic Nest Institute - Stockholm Resilience Centre,
Stockholm University,
SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden;
e-mail: bo.gustafsson@stockholmresilience.su.se

Keywords: Baltic Sea, turbulent mixing, internal waves

Received 23 April 2009, revised 17 November 2009, accepted 24 November 2009.

This work was funded by the Swedish Research Council under contracts G 600-335/2001 and 621-2003-3425, and by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research via the MARE program. This is publication No. 30 from Tellus - The Centre of Earth Systems Science at the University of Gothenburg.
The pathways of energy supply for mixing the deep waters of the Baltic Sea is largely unknown. In this paper, a parameterization of the internal wave drag forces on barotropic motion is developed and implemented into a two-dimensional shallow water model of the Baltic Sea. The model is validated against observed sea levels. The dissipation of barotropic motion by internal wave drag that is quantified from the model results show that breaking internal waves generated by wind forced barotropic motions can contribute significantly to diapycnal mixing in the deep water of the Baltic Sea.

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Distribution of phytoplankton along the thermohaline gradient in the north-eastern Adriatic channel; winter aspect:
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(4), pp. 495-513

Damir Viličić1,*, Milivoj Kuzmić2, Sunčica Bosak1, Tina Šilović3, Enis Hrustić4, Zrinka Burić1
1 Division of Biology, Faculty of Science,
University of Zagreb,
Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia;
e-mail: dvilici@zg.biol.pmf.hr
*corresponding author
2 Division for Marine and Environmental Research,
Rudjer Bošković Institute,
Bijenička 54, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
3 Center for Marine Research,
Rudjer Bošković Institute,
G. Paliaga 5, 52210 Rovinj, Croatia
4 University of Dubrovnik
Institute for Marine and Coastal Research,
Kneza Damjana Jude 12, 20000 Dubrovnik, Croatia

Keywords: Phytoplankton composition, chlorophyll, temperature, salinity, nutrients, Pag Channel, Velebit Channel, transition zone, Adriatic Sea

Received 27 February 2009, revised 4 September 2009, accepted 18 September 2009.

This research was supported by the Ministry of Science of Croatia (projects no. 119-1191189-1228, 098-0982705-2707, 098-2705-2729 and 275-0000000-3186).
The distribution of phytoplankton and its relation to the hydrographic features in the north-eastern Adriatic was investigated in February 2008. The area of interest included a thermohaline gradient in the channel situated between the coast and the islands lying parallel to the coast. The gradient is controlled by the influx of oligotrophic karstic riverine water at the south-eastern end, submarine springs in the middle part, and warmer offshore waters at the north-western end of the channel. The change of temperature and salinity in the estuarine transition zone was accompanied by abundant diatoms and dinoflagellates below the halocline, with dominant chain-forming diatoms (Chaetoceros, Bacteriastrum) in abundances reaching 5 ×105 cells dm-3. The impact of coastal submarine springs detected by infrared remote sensing resulted in the growth of cyanobacteria in the nitrogen-depleted surface waters. The greater contribution of picoplankton, as well as of nanoplanktonic coccolithophorids and cryptophytes, in the outer channel system indicated their preference for oligotrophic conditions. Flow cytometric counts of nanophytoplankton were 10-30 times greater than inverted microscope counts. Cyanobacteria were about five times more abundant than picoeukaryotes. The study demonstrates how different techniques (remote sensing and in situ investigations) can be useful in understanding the biological and hydrographic set-up in the specific oligotrophic eastern Adriatic coastal environment.

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Concentrations and profiles of brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) in Baltic and Atlantic herring:
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(4), pp. 515-523

Ott Roots1,2,*, Vladimir Zitko3, Hannu Kiviranta4, Panu Rantakokko4, Päivi Ruokojärvi4
1 Estonian Environmental Research Institute
(under Estonian Environmental Research Centre),
Marja 4D, EE-10617 Tallinn, Estonia
2 Estonian Marine Institute,
University of Tartu,
Mäealuse 10A, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia;
e-mail: ott.roots@klab.ee
*corresponding author
3 Consultant,
114 Reed Ave, St. Andrews, NB, E5B 1A1, Canada
4 National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL),
Department of Environmental Health,
Neulaniementie 4, FI-70701 Kuopio, Finland

Keywords: BDE, aquatic biota, Baltic Sea herring, Atlantic herring

Received 15 June 2009, revised 31 August 2009, accepted 15 October 2009.

This project was supported financially by the Ministry of Agriculture of Estonia (sample collection), by the National Public Health Institute of Finland, Department of Environmental Health, Laboratory of Chemistry (BDE analyses) and by the Ministry of Education and Research of Estonia (Project SF018104s08).
The total concentrations of BDEs in Baltic herring, caught in different years (2002-08) from various areas of the Baltic, and in Atlantic herring (2006) can be reasonably well described by a single concentration vs weight relationship. Samples collected a few years earlier and analysed by others show a slightly different relationship. This indicates that the weight of the fish is an important factor determining the level of contamination and that the contamination apparently did not increase between 1999 and 2008. However, two Baltic herring samples collected in 2007 contained, for reasons unknown, very high concentrations of BDE 209. The BDE profiles (concentrations scaled to a sum of 100) varied a great deal. It is impossible to determine how much of this variation is real and how much is caused by errors in the analyses. The concentration of the BDE 75 was much higher in the Atlantic than in the Baltic herring. Even after taking this into consideration, however, the BDE profile in Atlantic herring is different from the BDE profiles in Baltic herring.

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Roots O., Zitko V., Kiviranta H., Rantakokko P., Ruokojarvi P., 2009, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)in Baltic herring from Estonian waters, 2006–2008, J. Ecol. Chem., (submitted).

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Purification and characterisation of ferritin from the Baltic blue mussel Mytilus trossulus
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(4), pp. 525-539

Joanna Potrykus*, Alicja Kosakowska
Marine Chemistry and Biochemistry Department,
Institute of Oceanology,
Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: potrykus@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: Baltic Sea, Mytilus trossulus, Ferritin

Received 23 July 2009, revised 19 October 2009, accepted 27 October 2009.

This work was supported financially by the Committee for Scientific Research, grant No. 3/P04E/035/22, and the Institute of Oceanology statutory research grant.
Baltic blue mussels Mytilus trossulus were collected from the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea) in order to isolate ferritin from its soft tissues, as well as to purify and characterise this protein.
    Proteins were isolated from the inner organs of M. trossulus (hepatopancreas, gills and soft tissue residue) by thermal denaturation (70°C) and acidification (pH 4.5) of the homogenates, followed by ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) fractionation. The ferritin was then separated by ultracentrifugation (100 000 × g, 120 min.). The protein content in the purified homogenates was determined by the Lowry method using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and horse spleen ferritin (HSF) as standards. PAGE-SDS and Western blotting analysis permitted identification of ferritin in the purified preparations. Additionally, the purified homogenates and mussel soft tissue were analysed for their heavy metal contents (especially cadmium and iron) in a Video 11 E atomic absorption spectrophotometer, following wet digestion of the samples (HNO3/HClO4).
    The electrophoregrams showed that the inner organs of M. trossulus contained ferritin, which, like plant ferritin, is characterised by the presence of subunits in the electrophoregram in the 26.6-28.0 kDa range. The highest ferritin content was recorded in the hepatopancreas, followed by the gills and the soft tissue residue. With regard to the sampling stations, the highest content of ferritin was noted in the animals sampled off Sopot (station D3), and in those collected by a diver off Jastarnia (W1) and Gdynia (W4). Ferritin isolated from the inner organs of mussels collected from these stations also contained the largest quantities of heavy metals (Cd and Fe). Ferritin isolated from the inner organs of mussels collected by a diver from wrecks - sites where the concentrations of iron and other trace metals in the sea water are high - contained higher quantities of heavy metals (Cd and Fe) than the ferritin isolated from the inner organs of mussels collected with the drag. This confirms that ferritin is a protein able to store and transport not only iron, but also, though to a lesser extent, some other heavy metals, including cadmium.

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Influence of the local abiotic environment, weather and regional nutrient loading on macrobenthic invertebrate feeding groups in a shallow brackish water ecosystem
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(4), pp. 541-559

Triin Veber1, Jonne Kotta2,*, Velda Lauringson1,2, Ilmar Kotta2
1 Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences,
University of Tartu,
Vanemuise 46, EE-51014 Tartu, Estonia
2 Estonian Marine Institute,
University of Tartu,
Mäealuse 10a, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia;
e-mail: jonne.kotta@sea.ee
*corresponding author

Keywords: Baltic, benthic invertebrate functions, interactive effects, nutrient load, weather

Received 29 December 2008, revised 12 November 2009, accepted 23 November 2009.

Funding for this research was provided by target financed project SF0180013s08 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research and by the Estonian Science Foundation grants 6015 and 7813.
This study evaluated the extent to which depth, sediment type, exposure to waves and coastal slope inclination modulate the relationships between regional nutrient loading, weather patterns and the species composition and dominance structure of macrobenthic invertebrate feeding groups in a brackish water ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. Irrespective of feeding function, the species composition and dominance structure of benthic invertebrate communities were determined by local abiotic variables such as exposure, depth and sediment type. Regional weather variables (average southerly winds, salinity, water temperature, ice conditions) either separately or interactively contributed to the variability of benthic invertebrates. Nutrient loading had significant effects on benthic invertebrates only in interactions with local abiotic or regional weather variables. Herbivores, deposit feeders and suspension feeders exhibited a stronger response to the studied environmental variables than carnivores. All this suggests that (1) the dynamic coastal habitats studied in this work are not very sensitive to shifts in nutrient loading and (2) local abiotic conditions and weather patterns largely define the observed biotic patterns. We believe that the benthic invertebrate time series will only be a better reflection of the nutrient loading signal if more years covering extreme events are included.

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Mathematical description of vertical algal accessory pigment distributions in oceans - a brief presentation
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(4), pp. 561-580

Roman Majchrowski1,*, Mirosława Ostrowska
1Institute of Physics,
Pomeranian University in Słupsk,
Arciszewskiego 22B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;
e-mail: majchrowski@apsl.edu.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Oceanology,
Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland

Keywords: Accessory pigment concentration, vertical distribution of pigments, bio-optical modelling

Received 13 July 2009, revised 24 September 2009, accepted 20 October 2009.

This paper was presented at the 5th International Conference on "Current Problems in the Optics of Natural Waters", St. Petersburg, 8-12 September 2009. An abridged version will be published in the Conference Proceedings.
    Partial funding for this study (research projects NN304 275235 and N306 1391 33) was received from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education for 2008-10. The investigations were performed within the framework of the scientific network Inter-Institute Group for Satellite Observations of the Marine Environment.
A straightforward mathematical expression for describing the vertical distributions of algal accessory pigments in oceans is presented. To this end ca 1500 empirical datasets of accessory pigment depth profiles gathered during some 200 research cruises in different oceanic regions were analysed. These data were retrieved from the bio-optical databases of SeaBASS and U.S. JGOFS published on the Internet.
    The statistical relationships were analysed between the concentrations of accessory pigments and the trophic indices of waters, as measured by the surface concentrations of chlorophyll a and the optical depths in different oceanic regions. A mathematical expression was established and formulas based on it were found, approximating the relations between the vertical distributions of accessory pigments and the chlorophyll a concentration. These formulas can be used to model the species composition of algae in different parts of the ocean and in remote sensing algorithms.

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The First Earth and Planetary Research Centre Conference
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(4), pp. 581-584

Marta Wachowicz

geoplanet-logo The First Earth and Planetary Research Centre Conference was held on 5 and 6 November 2009 at the Institute of Oceanology PAS in Sopot. The initiative to establish the Earth and Planetary Research Centre (GeoPlanet) was taken jointly by the Institute of Geophysics PAS, the Space Research Centre PAS, the Institute of Geological Sciences PAS and Institute of Oceanology PAS. The Contract to establish the Centre was signed on March 30, 2009. The GeoPlanet Centre is run by a Board of Directors, and it was decided to base GeoPlanet at the Institute of Geophysics PAS. The creation of the Centre, with its scientific and infrastructural potential, common databases and research groups, may constitute a substantial added value, of importance on both the domestic and international scientific markets. In Europe, consolidation of research potential has taken place in recent decades: good examples in the field of Earth Sciences include the IFREMER Centre in France, which incorporates several marine research organizations, and the GeoForschungsZentrum in Germany...
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