Oceanologia No. 50 (1) / 08







The Editor would like to thank all the 75 reviewers who in 2007 reviewed the papers submitted to Oceanologia. We have received kind permission to print the following reviewers' names:

Prof. Bożena Bogaczewicz-Adamczak (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Björn Bohling (University of Kiel, Germany) • Dr Sandro Carniel (Instituto di Scienze Marine, CNR, Venice, Italy) • Carla Caverhill (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, Canada) • Prof. Juliusz Chojnacki (Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Fred C. Dobbs (Old Dominion University, Norfolk, USA) • Prof. Czeslaw Druet (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Jüri Elken (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia) • Dr Marco Faasse (National Museum of Natural History Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands) • Prof. Gregorio Fernandez-Leborans (Complutense University, Madrid, Spain) • Dr Marie-Hélène Forget (Dalhousie University, Canada) • Dr Rosa Freitas (University of Aveiro, Portugal) • Dr Charles K. Gatebe (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA) • Dr David R. Green (School of Geosciences, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK) • Dr Judi Hewitt (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand) • Prof. Niels Kristian Hoejerslev (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) • Doc. Andrzej Jankowski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Leszek Kaczmarek (Institute of Hydroengineering PAS, Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Zygmunt Klusek (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Marc Kochzius (University of Bremen, Germany) • Doc. Alicja Kosakowska (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Grażyna Kowalewska (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Zygmunt Kowalik (University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA) • Prof. Adam Krężel (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Reinhard Lampe (University of Greifswald, Germany) • Doc. Tomasz Linkowski (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Dr José Vitor Moreira Lima Filho (Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Brazil) • Prof. Stanisław R. Massel (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Daniela Meloni (National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Rome, Italy) • Prof. Mirosław Miętus (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Maritime Branch, Gdynia, Poland) • Dr François Muller (Environmental Research Institute, Thurso, UK) • Prof. Jacek Namieśnik (Technical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Dietwart Nehring (Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany) • Prof. Jerzy Olszewski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Zbigniew Otremba (Gdynia Maritime University, Poland) • Dr Raimo Parmanne (Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Finland) • Prof. William R. C. Phillips (Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia) • Prof. Jan Piechura (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Jacek Piskozub (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Trevor Platt (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, Canada) • Prof. Marcin Pliński (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Sergei I. Pogosyan (Moscow State University, Russia) • Dr Anna Rozwadowska (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Iwona Sagan (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Torsten Seifert (Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany) • Dr Emmanoel Silva-Filho (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Química, Niterói, RJ, Brazil) • Dr Pawel Schlichtholz (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Tarmo Soomere (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia) • Prof. Marcel J.F. Stive (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands) • Dr Venetia Stuart (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, Canada) • Dr Małgorzata Stramska (San Diego State University, USA) • Prof. Anna Szaniawska (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Piotr Szefer (Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Henry A. Vanderploeg (NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, USA) • Prof. Aldo Viarengo (University of Piemonte Orientale "A. Avogadro", Alessandria, Italy) • Prof. Grzegorz Węgrzyn (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Jan Marcin Węsławski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Zbigniew Witek (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Andrzej Witkowski (University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Maciej Wołowicz (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Bogdan Woźniak (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Mark Zacharias (University of Victoria, Canada).


Climate of long internal waves and resuspension on the coastal shelf
Oceanologia 2008, no 50(1), pp. 5-21

Darek J. Bogucki1,*, Larry G. Redekopp2
1Division of Applied Marine Physics, RSMAS, University of Miami,
4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, FL-33149-1098 Miami, USA;
e-mail: DBogucki@rsmas.miami.edu
*corresponding author
2Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California,
CL-90089-1191 Los Angeles, USA

Keywords: internal waves, turbulence, instability, resuspension

Received 12 October 2007, revised 15 February 2008, accepted 19 February 2008.
Observations of the shelf environment rarely associate internal solitary waves (ISWs) with the impact of their passage. An experiment observed during the Coastal Mixing and Optics 1996 (CMO '96), a sequence of long internal waves on a coastal shelf is reported, including both mode-1 and mode-2 waves, together with evidence related to the interaction of propagating ISWs and the benthic boundary layer. The observed ISW dynamics is shown to present a repetitive pattern or "climate cycle". The ISW-associated benthic signature described here occurs frequently (at least once a day) in the CMO '96 coastal area and suggests that ISWs under calm, summer-like conditions may have a decisive influence on the fate of near-bottom pollutants or biological processes in shelf regions.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 890 KB

Environmental changes in the central Baltic Sea during the past 1000 years: inferences from sedimentary records, hydrography and climate
Oceanologia 2008, no 50(1), pp. 23-41

Thomas Leipe1*, Joachim W. Dippner1, Sven Hille1, Maren Voss1, Christian Christiansen2, Jan Bartholdy
1Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW),
Seestrasse 15, D-18119 Warnemünde, Germany;
e-mail: thomas.leipe@io-warnemuende.de
*corresponding author
2Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen
Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen K., Denmark

Keywords: Gotland Basin, medieval and modern warm period, Little Ice Age, hydrography, sediments

Received 20 September 2007, revised 31 December 2007, accepted 14 January 2008.
Short sediment cores from the eastern Gotland Basin were investigated using a multi-proxy approach in order to reconstruct the environmental conditions of the area during the past 1000 years. Sediment data and facies were discussed in relation to hydrographic features (salinity, oxygen) and climate change. During the medieval warm period (MWP), from about 900 to 1250 AD, the hydrographic and environmental conditions were similar to those of the present time (modern warm period, since about 1850): a temporally stable halocline, caused by regular saline water inflows from the North Sea, prevents vertical mixing and leads to bottom water anoxia and the deposition of laminated, organic-rich sapropels. During the period from about 1250 to 1850, referred to as the cold phase (including the Little Ice Age), the environmental conditions of the central Baltic Sea were distinctly different: the lower salinity, resulting from reduced North Sea water inflows, allowed vertical convection of the water column and long-term stable ventilation of the sea bed (oxic stage). Both the productivity of the planktonic ecosystem as well as the preservation of organic matter in the sediments improved during the warm periods. The anthropogenic impact can be identified within the recent laminated sequence by a temporal reconstruction of pollutant deposition. Our findings imply a climate-change driven shift in the environmental conditions and the ecosystem of the Baltic from the north to the south and back to the north.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 1000 KB

Shallow-water wave energy dissipation in a multi-bar coastal zone
Oceanologia 2008, no 50(1), pp. 43-58

Zbigniew Pruszak*, Piotr Szmytkiewicz, Rafal Ostrowski, Marek Skaja, Marek Szmytkiewicz
Institute of Hydroengineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, (IBW PAN),
Kościerska 7, PL-80-328 Gdańsk, Poland;
e-mail: zbig@ibwpan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: surf zone, multi-bar shore, characteristic wave parameters, wave energy dissipation

Received 2 August 2007, revised 25 January 2008, accepted 28 January 2008.

The paper presents results of the research carried out within the project N306 003 31/0081 entitled: "Determination and description of relationships between sediment motion, flow structures and bottom changes, together with extension and verification of the model of these phenomena for shallow water areas of a multi-bar (dissipative) and a non-bar (reflective) shore", funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland). A part of the study was also sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland) under the IBW PAN statutory research programme.
The paper presents the results of studies of wave transformation on a multi-bar cross-shore profile of the southern Baltic Sea. The field investigations of wave motion were carried out using an offshore wave buoy and string wave gauges at the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station, Lubiatowo (Poland). These experimental results were used to validate statistical relationships between characteristic wave parameters in the coastal region and to assess wave energy dissipation in the surf zone. A simple model for calculating the residual nearshore wave energy is proposed and tested versus the data collected in situ.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 2460 KB

Decadal fluctuations in North Atlantic water inflow in the North Sea between 1958-2003: impacts on temperature and phytoplankton populations:
Oceanologia 2008, no 50(1), pp. 59-72

Sophie C. Leterme1,*, Robin D. Pingree2, Morten D. Skogen3, Laurent Seuront1,4, Philip C. Reid5, Martin J. Attrill6
1School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University,
GPO Box 2100, SA-5001 Adelaide, Australia;
e-mail: sophie.leterme@flinders.edu.au
*corresponding author
2Marine Biological Association of the UK, The Laboratory,
Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK
3Institute of Marine Research,
PO Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway
4Laboratoire d'Oceánologie et de Géosciences,
CNRS UMR 8187, Station Marine de Wimereux,
Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Lille 1,
28 Avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux, France
5Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory,
Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK
6Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre,
School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth,
Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK

Keywords: climate, sea surface temperature, ocean circulation, plankton

Received 5 November 2007, revised 17 January 2008, accepted 23 January 2008.
The circulation of Atlantic water along the European continental slope, in particular the inflow into the North Sea, influences North Sea water characteristics with consequent changes in the environment affecting plankton community dynamics. The long-term effect of fluctuating oceanographic conditions on the North Sea pelagic ecosystem is assessed. It is shown that (i) there are similar regime shifts in the inflow through the northern North Sea and in Sea Surface Temperature, (ii) long-term phytoplankton trends are influenced by the inflow only in some North Sea regions, and (iii) the spatial variability in chemicophysical and biological parameters highlight the influence of smaller scale processes.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 510 KB

Is Practical Salinity conservative in the Baltic Sea?
Oceanologia 2008, no 50(1), pp. 73-82

Rainer Feistel*, Stefan Weinreben
Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW),
Seestrasse 15, D-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany;
e-mail: rainer.feistel@io-warnemuende.de
*corresponding author

Keywords: Practical Salinity Scale 1978, Standard Seawater, salinity conservation, composition anomaly, Baltic Sea

Received 13 November 2007, revised 4 February 2008, accepted 8 February 2008.
The conductivity-salinity conversion algorithm used for oceanographic measurements of Practical Salinity on the PSS-78 scale is designed for IAPSO Standard Seawater. The application of this formula to a given sample of non-standard seawater does not necessarily result in a constant salinity value when the sample's conductivity is measured at different temperatures. We have experimentally studied the magnitude of this non-conservative effect of Practical Salinity using a sample of Baltic seawater possessing a density anomaly of about 50 g m-3. The apparent change of salinity observed is at the limit of experimental uncertainty and is not significantly different from the drift of Standard Seawater, which was measured for comparison.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 410 KB

Effect of transplantation on heavy metal concentrations in commercial clams of Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt
Oceanologia 2008, no 50(1), pp. 83-94

Howaida R. Gabr, Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla
Marine Sciences Department,
Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University,
41552 Ismailia, Egypt;
e-mail: hgabr_suezcanal@yahoo.com; aligaballa2000@yahoo.com

Keywords: Ruditapes decussatus, Venerupis pullastra, Suez Canal, transplantation, heavy metals

Received 29 December 2007, revised 5 February 2008, accepted 3 March 2008.
Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra are commercially fished clams with a wide distribution in the shallow inshore waters of Lake Timsah, Egypt. They are usually contaminated with heavy metals. Consumption of such contaminated clams can pose a public health risk. To minimise this risk, therefore, the clams should be removed from the contaminated waters and transferred to an approved area to reduce the high levels of metals before being marketed. The aim of this work was to study the effect of transplantation on levels of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb) in these clams. The clams were removed from their polluted site and transplanted to a relatively clean area for a period of 120 days. Although the salinity at the transplantation site was higher than at the polluted site, it was stable and did not appear to have any adverse effect on clam growth. Heavy metals were analysed in the water, sediment and clam tissues from both the polluted and the transplantation sites. Although in both species transplantation evidently reduced heavy metal levels, these still exceeded the maximum permissible levels laid down by the WHO (1982).
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 155 KB


Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes - Highlights from the Baltic Sea Science Congress at Rostock University, Germany, 19-22 March 2007
Oceanologia 2008, no 50(1), pp. 95-113

Kai Myrberg1,*, Andreas Lehmann2, Urmas Raudsepp3, Maria Szymelfenig4, Inga Lips3, Urmas Lips3, Maciej Matciak4, Marek Kowalewski4, Adam Krężel4, Dorota Burska4, Lena Szymanek5, Anetta Ameryk5, Luiza Bielecka4, Katarzyna Bradtke4, Anna Gałkowska4, Sławomira Gromisz5, Jan Jędrasik4, Marcin Kaluźny4, Łukasz Kozłowski4, Alicja Krajewska-Sołtys5, Bogdan Ołdakowski5, Michał Ostrowski4, Mariusz Zalewski5, Oleg Andrejev1, Irene Suomi6, Victor Zhurbas3,7, Olli-Kalle Kauppinen1, Edith Soosaar3, Jaan Laanemets3, Rivo Uiboupin3, Lembit Talpsepp3, Maria Golenko8, Nikolai Golenko8, Emil Vahtera1
1Finnish Institute of Marine Research,
PO Box 2, FIN-00561 Helsinki, Finland;
*corresponding author, e-mail: myrberg@fimr.fi
2Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences,
Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany
3Marine Systems Institute at Tallinn University of Technology,
Akadeemia tee 21, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia
4Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland
5Sea Fisheries Institute,
Kołłątaja 1, PL-81-332 Gdynia, Poland
6Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki,
PO Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland
7P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology,
Nakhimovski Prospect 36, 117997 Moscow, Russia
8Atlantic Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology,
Prospect Mira 1, 236000 Kaliningrad, Russia

Keywords: Baltic Sea, upwelling, coastal-open sea, biogeochemistry

Received 31 October 2007, revised 1 February 2008, accepted 4 February 2008.
The Baltic Sea Science Congress was held at Rostock University, Germany, from 19 to 22 March 2007. In the session entitled "Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes" 20 presentations were given, including 7 talks and 13 posters related to the theme of the session. This paper summarises new findings of the upwelling-related studies reported in the session. It deals with investigations based on the use of in situ and remote sensing measurements as well as numerical modelling tools. The biogeochemical implications of upwelling are also discussed. Our knowledge of the fine structure and dynamic considerations of upwelling has increased in recent decades with the advent of high-resolution modern measurement techniques and modelling studies. The forcing and the overall structure, duration and intensity of upwelling events are understood quite well. However, the quantification of related transports and the contribution to the overall mixing of upwelling requires further research. Furthermore, our knowledge of the links between upwelling and biogeochemical processes is still incomplete. Numerical modelling has advanced to the extent that horizontal resolutions of c. 0.5 nautical miles can now be applied, which allows the complete spectrum of meso-scale features to be described. Even the development of filaments can be described realistically in comparison with high-resolution satellite data. But the effect of upwelling at a basin scale and possible changes under changing climatic conditions remain open questions.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 2041 KB


Acoustical classification of bottom sediments
Oceanologia 2008, no 50(1), pp. 115-118

Jarosław Tęgowski
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: tegowski@iopan.gda.pl

The post-doctoral thesis in earth sciences.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 57 KB

Assessment of exposure of organisms to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine coastal ecosystems
Oceanologia 2008, no 50(1), pp. 119-121

Ksenia Pazdro
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: pazdro@iopan.gda.pl

The post-doctoral thesis in earth sciences.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 52 KB