Oceanologia No. 49 (3) / 07





Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran and biophenyl content in selected groups of Baltic herring and sprat from Estonian coastal waters in 2006
Oceanologia 2007, 49(3), 293-303

Ott Roots1,2,*, Mart Simm2
1Estonian Environmental Research Institute,
(under Estonian Environmental Research Centre),
Marja 4D, EE-10 617 Tallinn, Estonia
2Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu,
Mäealuse 10A, EE-12 618 Tallinn, Estonia;
e-mail: ott.roots@klab.ee
*corresponding author

Keywords: Baltic Sea, PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB, Baltic herring, Baltic sprat, food, Estonia

Received 5 April 2007, revised 7 August 2007, accepted 10 August 2007.
The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB) were determined in samples of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) in 2006 from commercial catches in Estonian coastal waters, Baltic Sea. The dioxin content of the fish sampled in 2006 did not exceed the European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs (4.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight) and for the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (8.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight). PCDD/Fs and the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs content in herring were 2.12 and 3.84 pg WHO-TEQ/g of fresh weight respectively; the corresponding figures for sprat were 1.94 and 3.82 pg WHO-TEQ/g of fresh weight. Comparable with our earlier data on the content of dioxins in three to four year old herring and two to three year old sprat, these data show that two servings of fish per week are not at all harmful to the health of the Estonian people; indeed, the opposite is more likely to be the case.
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Inter-annual depth-dependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in marine benthic protist communities
Oceanologia 2007, 49(3), 305-336

Gregorio Fernandez-Leborans1,*, Regina Gabilondo1, Soledad Ruiz-Álvarez2
1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biology,
Pnta 9, Complutense University,
Madrid - 28040, Spain;
e-mail: greg@bio.ucm.es
2Department of Cellular Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Biology,
University of Santiago de Compostela,
Santiago de Compostela - 15740, A Coruña, Spain
*corresponding author

Keywords: cadmium toxicity, bioaccumulation, protist communities, density, number of species, biomass, depth levels

Received 16 May 2007, revised 17 July 2007, accepted 7 September 2007.

This study was supported by a grant (BOS2001-1334) of the CICYT (MCYT, Spain).
The toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in a marine benthic protist community were examined at different depths within the sediment. For this purpose, sediment-water microcosms with 1000 µg Cd dm-3 of the pollutant were used in two assays. The addition of cadmium caused a significant reduction in protist density, number of species and biomass. There was also a decrease in these three parameters with depth. During the treatment the density of protist groups was strongly depth-dependent. The dominant groups of protists at the different depths during the assay were also considered. The most dominant protist group in terms of density were the heterotrophic flagellates, both in the control and in the treatment with cadmium. In the treatments with cadmium, these were followed by ciliates and by dinoflagellates in both assays. In the control, all protist groups were present during the assay, whereas in the treatments with cadmium, autotrophic flagellates, diatoms and sarcodines were found in reduced proportion or not at all. Cadmium bioaccumulation increased towards the end of the assay. At any time during the assay, the proportion of cadmium bioaccumulated was an increasing function of depth.
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First report on Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Red Sea off the coasts of Saudi Arabia: consequences of eutrophication
Oceanologia 2007, 49(3), 337-351

Zakaria A. Mohamed1,2,*, Ibrahim Mesaad2
1Botany Department, Faculty of Science,
Sohag University,
Sohag - 82524, Egypt
2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science,
King Khalid University,
Abha - 9004, Saudi Arabia;
e-mail: mzakaria_99@yahoo.com
*corresponding author

Keywords: dinoflagellates, Noctiluca scintillans, Red Sea

Received 11 June 2007, revised 30 July 2007, accepted 14 August 2007.
Blooms of Noctiluca scintillans are reported for the first time in the Red Sea off the south-western coasts of Saudi Arabia. During the present study, surface water samples were collected weekly on the coasts of the Al Shuqayq region from February to April 2004-2006. The abundance of N. scintillans correlated negatively with most nutrients, as well as the cell densities of diatoms and dinoflagellate species. Microscopic examination of live cells from Noctiluca blooms showed the presence of some species of diatoms and dinoflagellates within the Noctiluca body - confirmation of its grazing on these microalgae. The presence of a Noctiluca bloom in the coastal waters off south-western Saudi Arabia could be linked indirectly to water eutrophication by an increase in prey abundance. The physico-chemical properties of Red Sea coastal waters should therefore be monitored regularly in order to minimize the formation of harmful algal blooms, which may affect all food web levels, including the human level.
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A comparative analysis of two allochthonous populations of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) from the Szczecin Lagoon (NW Poland) and San Francisco Bay (US west coast)
Oceanologia 2007, 49(3), 353-367

Przemyslaw Czerniejewski1, Wawrzyniec Wawrzyniak1, Wiesław Pasewicz2, Anna Bełdowska1
1Department of Fisheries Management in Open Waters,
Agricultural University of Szczecin,
Królewicza 4, PL-71-550 Szczecin, Poland
2Department of Food Technology,
Agricultural University of Szczecin,
Królewicza 4, PL-71-550 Szczecin, Poland

Keywords: Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis), body weight, morphometry, sexual dimorphism

Received 6 June 2007, revised 16 August 2007, accepted 5 September 2006.
Selected biological and morphometric characters of two populations of the non-indigenous Chinese mitten crab, one from the Szczecin Lagoon (SL) and the other from San Francisco Bay (SFB), both sampled in autumn, were analysed. The SL crabs showed a significantly higher individual weight, length and carapace width. Males accounted for 55% (87 individuals) of the 179 SL crabs, and 62.9% (90 individuals) of the SFB crabs. Statistical analysis of metric characters, expressed as a percentage of carapace width (X2), enabled four diagnostic characters to be identified: abdomen width (X11), carapace height (X3), left claw length (X7) and carapace length (X1). These jointly explain 71.75% of the differences between the SL and SFB crabs and are indicative of the distinctness of the populations.
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Epibionts (Paracineta) and parasites (Ellobiopsis) on copepods from Spitsbergen (Kongsfjorden area)
Oceanologia 2007, 49(3), 369-380

Wojciech Walkusz1,*, Leszek Rolbiecki2
1Institute of Oceanology,
Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańnców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: walwo@iopan.gda.pl
2Department of Invertebrate Zoology,
University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: lrolbiecki@ocean.univ.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: zooplankton, epibionts, parasites, Arctic, Ellobiopsis, Paracineta

Received 29 May 2007, revised 9 July 2007, accepted 17 July 2007.
Parasites of the genus Ellobiopsis and epibiontic ciliates of the genus Paracineta were found on the body surface of some copepod taxa collected in the Kongsfjorden area (west Spitsbergen, Svalbard) during summer 2002.
    Paracineta sp. individuals were noted in Metridia longa and Paraeuchaeta norvegica (0.5% of the population infected in each species). This study provides the first record of the presence of Paracineta sp. in the latter species. Remarkably, epibionts were attached exclusively to females.
    Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis were invaded by Ellobiopsis spp., but the level of infection was generally low (0.06% and 0.09% of the population infected, respectively). Parasite distribution within both host populations was similar - 80% of infected specimens were at copepodid stage V. This study also provides the first record of C. glacialis serving as a host to Ellobiopsis.

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Correlation analyses of Baltic Sea winter water mass formation and its impact on secondary and tertiary production
Oceanologia 2007, 49(3), 381-395

Hans-Harald Hinrichsen*, Andreas Lehmann, Christoph Petereit, Jörn Schmidt
Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences,
Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany;
e-mail: hhinrichsen@ifm-geomar.de
*corresponding author

Keywords: Baltic Sea, winter water temperature, Baltic Sea Index, fish egg survival, zooplankton stage development

Received 3 May 2007, revised 21 August 2007, accepted 23 August 2007.
The thermal stratification of the upper water layers in the Baltic Sea varies seasonally in response to the annual cycle of solar heating and wind-induced mixing. In winter, the stratification down to the halocline is almost completely eroded by convection and strong wind mixing. Monthly averaged temperature profiles obtained from the ICES hydrographic database were used to study the long-term variability (1950 to 2005) of winter water mass formation in different deep basins of the Baltic Sea east of the island of Bornholm. Besides strong interannual variability of deep winter water temperatures, the last two decades show a positive trend (increase of 1-1.5°C). Correlations of winter surface temperatures to temperatures of the winter water body located directly above or within the top of the halocline were strongly positive until the autumn months. Such a close coupling allows sea surface temperatures in winter to be used to forecast the seasonal development of the thermal signature in deeper layers with a high degree of confidence. The most significant impact of winter sea surface temperatures on the thermal signature in this depth range can be assigned to February/March. Stronger solar heating during spring and summer results in thermal stratification of the water column leading to a complete decoupling of surface and deep winter water temperatures. Based on laboratory experiments, temperature-dependent relationships were utilised to analyse interannual variations of biological processes with special emphasis on the upper trophic levels (e.g., stage-specific developmental rates of zooplankton and survival rates of fish eggs).
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Appraisal of tsunami inundation and run-up along the coast of Kanyakumari District, India - GIS analysis
Oceanologia 2007, 49(3), 397-412

Nainarpandian Chandrasekar*, Jeyakodi Loveson Immanuel, Jeyaraj Dajkumar Sahayam, Manoharan Rajamanickam, Sakthivel Saravanan
Centre for GeoTechnology, School of Technology,
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University,
Tirunelveli - 627 012, India;
e-mail: ncsmarine@yahoo.co.in
*corresponding author

Keywords: tsunami, Kanyakumari, inundation, geospatial technology, evaluation

Received 23 February 2007, revised 9 July 2007, accepted 16 July 2007.
On 26 December 2004, a tsunami severely affected almost all the coastal villages of Kanyakumari District, India. It was one of the worst affected coastal sectors of South India. An attempt has been made here to assess the impact of the tsunami hazard on coastal landforms and the level of inundation using GIS techniques. The areas of inundation were surveyed and mapped by fixing regular transects along the coastal regions. The percentage of inundated area in the total area was estimated. It was found that inundation was higher on low-lying coasts and relatively less on elevated coasts. In some cases, the extent of inundation was a few kilometres in relation to other coasts, but the percentage of inundated area in the total coastal area was high. The extent of inundation along the study area varied from 50 m to 450 m. Inundation was minimal in coastal villages like Kanyakumari, Agastheeswaram, Madhysoodhanapuram and Dharmapuram, but extensive at Colachel. The percentage of inundated area in the total area ranges from 8% (Dharmapuram) to 39% (Colachel). The degree of inundation was controlled by coastal geomorphological features such as sand dunes, cliffs, coastal vegetation, nature and configuration of the beach, not to mention the angle and velocity of the invading tsunami surge.
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Hydrocarbons on sea water: steady-state spreading signatures determined by an optical method
Oceanologia 2007, 49(3), 413-437

Katarzyna Boniewicz-Szmyt1, Stanisław Pogorzelski2, Adriana Mazurek2
1Department of Physics,
Gdynia Maritime University,
Morska 81-87, PL-81-225 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: kbon@am.gdynia.pl
2Institute of Experimental Physics,
University of Gdańsk,
Wita Stwosza 57, PL-80-952 Gdańsk, Poland;
e-mail: fizsp@univ.gda.pl

Keywords: liquid wettability, crude oil derivatives, oil pollution geometry, optical method, contamination, assessment relations

Received 31 July 2006, revised 16 June 2007, accepted 29 June 2007.

The study was supported by grant BW/5200-5-0214-6 from the Polish Council for Scientific Research (KBN) and carried out in part within the framework of the scientific activity of the University of Gdansk (supported from DS/5200-4-0024-06).
The spreading properties of several hydrocarbons (vegetable, engine, gear and crude oils) on distilled and artificial sea water were determined under laboratory conditions using a novel optical method. With the aid of Langmuir's equation, the geometrical signatures of a discrete lens of each hydrocarbon droplet floating on a water tank served to calculate the entering E (31.30-94.18 mN m-1) and spreading S (-3.50 to -57.49 mN m-1) coefficients, and equilibrium thicknesses t (0.20-1.25 cm). They appeared to be in agreement with the values derived from direct interfacial tension measurements (Wilhelmy plate and stalagmometer methods). Empirical relations of the normalized lens radius rL / rdrop and S on the water surface tension γAW were postulated as being of significant value in oil spill assessment studies at sea. The parameters obtained together with the surface properties of a natural surfactant-containing water body represent the principal input data required for modelling the spreading of a surface-tension-gradient-driven oil spill at sea.
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A new occurrence of the benthic amphipod Dyopedos monacanthus (Metzger, 1875) in the southern Baltic Sea - the first record in the Słupsk Furrow
Oceanologia 2007, 49(3), 439-445

Diana Dziaduch
Sea Fisheries Institute,
Kołłątaja 1, PL-81-332 Gdynia;
e-mail: diana@mir.gdynia.pl

Keywords: Dyopedos monacanthus, Baltic Sea, Słupsk Furrow, new occurrence

Received 16 May 2007, revised 4 July 2007, accepted 6 August 2007.
The paper reports on the occurrence of the epibenthic amphipod Dyopedos monacanthus (Metzger, 1875) in the Baltic Sea. This species belongs to the family Dulichiidae and is found in the North Atlantic and European coastal waters from northern Norway to the English Channel and the Danish Straits. Some 50 years ago, only a few individuals of D. monacanthus were occasionally sighted in the western Baltic (the Arkona and Bornholm Basins). In summer 2006, unusual amphipod specimens were noticed at five deep-water stations over the Slupsk Furrow. This was the first time that D. monacanthus was observed in that area, which is currently the easternmost limit of the species' range in the Baltic Sea.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 112 KB