Oceanologia No. 48 (4) / 06




Diffusive component of the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon in the north polar Atlantic
Oceanologia 2006, 48(4), 455-477

Małgorzata Stramska
Center for Hydro-Optics & Remote Sensing (CHORS),
San Diego State University,
6505 Alvarado Rd., Ste. 206, San Diego, CA 92120, USA;
e-mail: mstramska@ucsd.edu

Keywords: ocean color remote sensing, particulate organic carbon export, north polar Atlantic

Received 9 September 2006, revised 26 October 2006, accepted 11 November 2006.

Financial support for this research was provided by the NSF Chemical Oceanography Program (grants OCE-0324346 and OCE-0324680) and the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program (grants NAG5-12396 and NAG5-12397).
The diffusive component of the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the surface ocean layer has been estimated using a combination of the mixed layer model and ocean color data from the SeaWiFS satellite. The calculations were carried out for an example location in the north polar Atlantic centered at 75°N and 0°E for the time period of 1998-2004. The satellite estimates of surface POC derived using a regional ocean color algorithm were applied as an input to the model driven by local surface heat and momentum fluxes. For each year of the examined period, the diffusive POC flux was estimated at 200-m depth from April through December. The highest flux is generally observed in the late fall as a result of increased heat loss and convectional mixing of surface waters. A relatively high diffusive POC flux is also observed in early spring, when surface waters are weakly stratified. In addition, the model results demonstrate significant interannual variability. The highest diffusive POC flux occurred in 1999 (about 4500 mg m-2 over the 9-month period). In 1998 and 2002 the estimated flux was about two orders of magnitude lower. The interannual variability of the diffusive POC flux is associated with mixed layer dynamics and underscores the importance of atmospheric forcing for POC export from the surface layer to the ocean's interior.
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Modelling the light absorption properties of particulate matter forming organic particles suspended in sea water. Part 3. Practical applications
Oceanologia 2006, 48(4), 479-507

Bogdan Woźniak1,2,*, Sławomir B. Woźniak1, Katarzyna Tyszka1, Mirosława Ostrowska1, Dariusz Ficek2, Roman Majchrowski2, Jerzy Dera1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: wozniak@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk,
Arciszewskiego 22 B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;

Keywords: suspended particulate matter, morphological groups of the organic particles, light absorption coefficient, imaginary part of the complex refractive index of light

Received 22 September 2006, revised 6 November 2006, accepted 15 November 2006.

This work was carried out within the framework of IO PAS's statutory research, and also as part of project PZB-KBN 056/P04/2001/3 of the Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk.
This paper brings to a close our cycle of articles on modelling the light absorption properties of particulate organic matter (POM) in the sea. In the first two parts of this cycle (Woźniak et al. 2005a,b) we discussed these properties with reference to various model chemical classes and physical types of POM. We have put these results into practice in the present third part. As a result of the appropriate theoretical speculations, logically underpinned by empirical knowledge, we selected 25 morphological variants of marine organic detritus, to which we ascribed definite chemical compositions and physical types. On this basis and using known spectra of the mass-specific coefficients of light absorption by various naturally occurring organic substances (systematised in Parts 1 and 2), we determined the absorption properties of these 25 morphological groups of particles, that is, the spectra of the imaginary part of the refractive index n'p(λ) (in the 200-700 nm range) of the particulate matter. They can be applied, with the aid of Mie's or some other similar theory, to calculate the bulk optical properties (absorbing and scattering) of such sets of particles in the sea.
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Acoustic information applied to 4D environmental studies in the Baltic
Oceanologia 2006, 48(4), 509-524

Andrzej Orlowski
1Sea Fisheries Institute,
Kołłątaja 1, PL-81-332 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: orlov@mir.gdynia.pl

Keywords: acoustic oceanography, environment, marine ecosystem, Baltic

Received 11 September 2006, revised 28 November 2006, accepted 5 December 2006.
Since 1981, acoustic information collected in the form of calibrated measurements of integrated echo energy has been applied at the Sea Fisheries Institute to observe the relationships between fish distribution and environmental factors. Data gathered in different seasons for each elementary distance unit (EDSU) at standardised depth intervals were compared to the values of selected environmental parameters measured in parallel. Acoustic, biological and hydrological data were correlated in space and transferred to the complex database, enabling 4D analysis of numerous factors characterising a wide range of fish behaviour. A number of methods and standards of comparisons are described to explain how to improve understanding of the relationship between 3D spatial environmental gradients and fish distributions. The results of various case studies, including the influence of hydrologic and seabed characterising factors, illustrate the practical application and validity of the methods. Particular attention is given to indicators of the dependence of local fish biomass density on the temperature structure in the sea.
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Heterotrophic bacteria from brackish water of the southern Baltic Sea: biochemical and molecular identification and characterisation
Oceanologia 2006, 48(4), 525-543

Agnieszka Cabaj1,*, Katarzyna Palińska2, Alicja Kosakowska1, Julianna Kurlenda3
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: cabaj@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment,
AG Geomicrobiology, Carl von Ossietzky University,
PO Box 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany;
3Department of Clinical Bacteriology,
Provincial Technical Hospital,
Nowe Ogrody 1-6, PL-80-803 Gdańsk, Poland;

Keywords: heterotrophic bacteria, polyphasic study, brackish water

Received 28 June 2006, revised 8 November 2006, accepted 13 November 2006.

The study was partially supported by the Centre of Excellence for Shelf Seas Sciences, Institute of Oceanology PAS, FP5 programme, contract No EFK3-CT 2002-80004, as a part of the statutory activities of the Institute of Oceanology PAS (grant No II.3) and by the Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (grant No 2 PO4E 026 30, 2006-2008).
Six bacterial strains isolated from the surface water of the southern Baltic Sea were described on the basis of their morphological, physiological and biochemical features, and were classified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Comparative analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences of five of the six bacterial strains examined displayed a ≥98% similarity to the sequences available in the NCBI GenBank. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain 2 shared only a 96% similarity with other published sequences, which suggests that this is a new, hitherto unknown species. The isolated heterotrophic bacteria belong to the families Bacillaceae (strain 1), Flexibacteriaceae (strain 2), Sphingomonadaceae (strains 3, 5), Micrococcaceae (strain 4) and Aurantimonadaceae (strain 6).
    This is the first study in which the polyphasic approach has been applied to the identification of heterotrophic bacteria from the brackish waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk and Gdańsk Deep.

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Parasites of the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1811), an invasive species in the Polish fauna of the Vistula Lagoon ecosystem:
Oceanologia 2006, 48(4), 545-561

Leszek Rolbiecki
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: lrolbiecki@ocean.univ.gda.pl

Keywords: parasites, round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, Poland, Vistula Lagoon

Received 18 March 2006, revised 6 September 2006, accepted 11 September 2006.
The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1811) was introduced into southern Baltic waters (including the Vistula Lagoon) from the Black Sea and Sea of Azov in the early 1990s. This study describes the parasites of the round goby in its new environment. In 2004, 486 round goby specimens from the Vistula Lagoon were examined for parasites. The following taxa were identified: Dermocystidium sp.; Protozoa: Trichodina domerguei domerguei (Wallengren, 1897); Digenea: Cryptocotyle concavum (Creplin, 1825), Diplostomum spp., Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1831), Bunodera luciopercae (Müller, 1776); Cestoda: Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776), Eubothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779), Paradilepis scolecina (Rudolphi, 1819), Proteocephalus filicollis (Rudolphi, 1802), P. gobiorum Dogel et Bychovsky, 1939, Proteocephalus sp.; Nematoda: Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara, Niimi et Itagaki, 1974, Camallanus truncatus (Rudolphi, 1814), Contracaecum spp., Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Linstow, 1872), Dichelyne minutus (Rudolphi, 1819), Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802); Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchus gadi Müller, 1776, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776). The parasites found were all local species, already reported from Poland. Except for Dermocystidium sp., C. concavum, P. gobiorum, and D. minutes, they have already been recorded in other fish species in the Vistula Lagoon. The prevalence and mean intensity of infection was low (18.3%; 4.0 indiv. - this value does not include ciliates). The most frequent parasites included H. aduncum (9.9%, 1.2 indiv.) and A. crassus (9.1%, 1.2 indiv.). In addition, Dermocystidium sp., B. luciopercae, E. crassum, P. scolecina, P. filicollis, C. truncatus and C. ephemeridarum are reported from the round goby for the first time. As the fish has only recently appeared in the Vistula Lagoon, its parasitic fauna has not yet developed to the full.
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