Oceanologia No. 45 (2) / 03


Invited paper


Invited paper

Modelling light and photosynthesis in the marine environment
Oceanologia 2003, 45(2), 171-245
Bogdan Wozniak1, Jerzy Dera1, Dariusz Ficek2, Roman Majchrowski2, Miroslawa Ostrowska1, Slawomir Kaczmarek1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstancow Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: wozniak@iopan.gda.pl
2Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Pedagogical Academy in Slupsk, Arciszewskiego 22 B, PL-76-200 Slupsk, Poland
Keywords: Marine environment, underwater irradiance, bio-optical modelling, light absorption, pigments, photo- and chromatic acclimation, photosynthesis quantum yield, primary production, remote sensing algorithm Manuscript received 24 March 2003, reviewed 26 May 2003, accepted 29 May 2003.
The overriding and far-reaching aim of our work has been to achieve a good understanding of the processes of light interaction with phytoplankton in the sea and to develop an innovative physical model of photosynthesis in the marine environment, suitable for the remote sensing of marine primary production. Unlike previous models, the present one takes greater account of the complexity of the physiological processes in phytoplankton. We have focused in particular on photophysiological processes, which are governed directly or indirectly by light energy, or in which light, besides the nutrient content in and the temperature of seawater, is one of the principal limiting factors.
   To achieve this aim we have carried out comprehensive statistical analyses of the natural variability of the main photophysiological properties of phytoplankton and their links with the principal abiotic factors in the sea. These analyses have made use of extensive empirical data gathered in a wide diversity of seas and oceans by Polish and Russian teams as well as by joint Polish-Russian expeditions. Data sets available on the Internet have also been applied. As a result, a set of more or less complex, semi-empirical models of light-stimulated processes occurring in marine phytoplankton cells has been developed. The trophic type of sea, photo-acclimation and the production of photoprotecting carotenoids, chromatic acclimation and the production of various forms of chlorophyll-antennas and photosynthetic carotenoids, cell adaptation by the package effect, light absorption, photosynthesis, photoinhibition, the fluorescence effect, and the activation of PS2 centres are all considered in the models. These take into account not only the influence of light, but also, indirectly, that of the vertical mixing of water; in the case of photosynthesis, the quantum yield has been also formulated as being dependent on the nutrient concentrations and the temperature of seawater. The bio-optical spectral models of irradiance transmittance in case 1 oceanic waters and case 2 Baltic waters, developed earlier, also are described in this paper.
   The development of the models presented here is not yet complete and they all need continual improvement. Nevertheless, we have used them on a preliminary basis for calculating various photosynthetic characteristics at different depths in the sea, such as the concentration of chlorophyll and other pigments, and primary production. The practical algorithm we have constructed allows the vertical distribution of these characteristics to be determined from three input data: chlorophyll a concentration, irradiance, and temperature at the sea surface. Since all three data can be measured remotely, our algorithm can be applied as the "marine part" of the remote sensing algorithms used for detecting marine photosynthesis.
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The changing North Sea: knowledge, speculation and new challenges
Oceanologia 2003, 45(2), 247-259
Jürgen Sündermann
Institut für Meereskunde, Zentrum für Meeres- und Klimaforschung,
Universität Hamburg, Troplowitzstr. 7, 22529 Hamburg;
e-mail: suendermann@ifm.uni-hamburg.de
Keywords: North Sea, modelling, instruments, methods
Manuscript received 19 March 2003, reviewed 31 March 2003, accepted 7 April 2003.
Synthesis and New Conception of North Sea Research (SYCON) is the title of a German project carried out from 1998-2000 under the leadership of Hamburg University 1. It was accompanied by an international advisory board and covered North Sea issues as well as the general challenges to shelf sea research and sustainable management under global change. Particular emphasis was placed on the interdisciplinary analysis of comprehensive areas of knowledge: the data situation, understanding of processes, model development, instruments and methods, understanding of the system. Based on this, perspectives for future North Sea research were developed. The project produced a synthesis report, eleven monodisciplinary reports and an illustrated brochure for the general public (see Annex 1, this paper, p. 258).
1 The SYCON Project was carried out with support of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research under Grant No. 03F0215A. This article is based on the SYCON Synthesis Report (Südermann et al. 2001).
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A quasi phase-resolving model of net sand transport and short-term cross-shore profile evolution
Oceanologia 2003, 45(2), 261-282
Rafal Ostrowski
Institute of Hydroengineering, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Koscierska 7, PL-80-953 Gdansk, Poland;
e-mail: rafal@ibwpan.gda.pl
Keywords: Sediment transport, cross-shore profile changes, wave-current hydrodynamics Manuscript received 6 December 2002, reviewed 17 February 2003, accepted 7 April 2003.
A way of modelling of the net sediment transport rate on a cross-shore profile and the resulting sea bed changes is presented. In the sediment transport computations, a three-layer model with a description of the bedload based on the water-soil mixture theory by Kaczmarek & Ostrowski (1998, 2002) is used. The modelling system is applied to wave-current conditions variable over the cross-shore profile, and determined using the computational framework of Szmytkiewicz (2002a, b). The sediment transport module incorporates the asymmetric wave approaches as proposed by Ostrowski (2002). Model simulations have been produced for uniformly sloped and multi-bar initial cross-shore profiles. Some of the model results are compared with the IBW PAN (Institute of Hydroengineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences) field data collected at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo.
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Deposition of organic matter and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus at the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition - a GIS study
Oceanologia 2003, 45(2), 283-303
Ditte L. Jansen1, Dorte P. Lundqvist1, Christian Christiansen1*, Lars C. Lund-Hansen2, Thomas Balstrøm1, Thomas Leipe3
1Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen, Oester Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark;
e-mail: cc@geogr.ku.dk, fax +45 35322501
2Department of Marine Ecology, Aarhus University, Finlandsgade 14, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
3Baltic Sea Research Institute, Warnemünde, Seestrasse 15, 18119 Rostock, Germany
*corresponding author
Keywords: Sediments, nutrients, deposition, GIS, North Sea, Baltic Sea Manuscript received 24 March 2003, reviewed 16 April 2003, accepted 5 May 2003.
A GIS (Geographical Information System) based study on deposition in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition area has been carried out. The study is based on (i) a digital bathymetry model, (ii) 93 available 210Pb / 137Cs sedimentation rate estimations, (iii) grain-size distributions, organic matter, C, N and P content of 64 top 1 cm sediment samples from the study area, and (iv) GIS-based modelling of resuspension potentials based on wind statistics. With the use of regression statistics on depth, resuspension potential and sediment characteristics, results are extrapolated area-wide from the 64 sampling positions. The area is divided into sediment types and classified as accumulation or erosion/transport bottoms. Model results show good agreement with existing maps of sediment distributions, indicating that the sediment distribution is governed to a large extent by wind-induced waves. Correlations of sediment types, their deposition rates and their N and P contents were used to estimate spatial deposition rates. In all, the yearly deposition in the study area amounts to 2.8 million tons of organic matter, 0.14 million tons of total nitrogen, and 0.035 million tons of total phosphorus. Correlations of sediment types and dry bulk densities were used to infer spatial inventories of organic matter and total nitrogen and phosphorus in the top 1 cm of the sediments. A total of 100 million tons of organic matter, 4 million tons of total nitrogen, and 0.019 million tons of total phosphorus are contained in the top 1 cm of the sediments in the study area. In general, the deep parts of the study area with low resuspension potentials act as sinks for the fine-grained sediments and their associated particulate nutrients.
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Nodularia spumigena blooms and the occurrence of hepatotoxin in the Gulf of Gdansk
Oceanologia 2003, 45(2), 305-316
Hanna Mazur, Marcin Plinski
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, al. Marszalka Pilsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: biohm@univ.gda.pl
Keywords: Nodularia spumigena, Nodularin, cyanobacterial toxins, Gulf of Gdansk Manuscript received 28 November 2002, reviewed 11 February 2003, accepted 27 March 2003.

This paper was presented at the ECSA Symposium 34 "Estuaries and other brackish areas - pollution barriers or sources to the sea?", Gdansk-Sopot, 15-20 September 2002.
Nodularia spumigena forms extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. The occurrence of the blooms is determined by water temperature, light intensity and nutrient concentration; levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in particular are critical. The time of the seasonal maximum and intensity of the Nodularia bloom in the Gulf of Gdansk vary significantly from year to year. In 2001 a rapid and massive proliferation of N. spumigena was observed in late June - early July. The concentration of nodularin in water ranged from 90 to 18135 µg dm-3 and in lyophilised phytoplankton samples from 3000 to 3520 µg g-1 d.w. (dry weight). Such a high concentration of toxin in the recreational waters of the Gulf of Gdansk constitutes a health risk for users of bathing areas. In 2002, the N. spumigena bloom was less dense, but lasted longer, with a maximum in late July - early August. In 2002 the concentration of nodularin did not exceed 12.6 µg dm-3 in water and 919 µg g-1 d.w. in lyophilised phytoplankton samples. Other cyanobacterial toxins - microcystins and anatoxin-a - were also detected in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Gdansk.
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Short-term and seasonal variability of mesozooplankton at two coastal stations (Gdynia, Sopot) in the shallow water zone of the Gulf of Gdansk
Oceanologia 2003, 45(2), 317-336
Anna Jozefczuk, Edyta Guzera, Luiza Bielecka
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk,Wladyslawa Andersa 27, PL-81-824, Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: aniaj@gnu.univ.gda.pl
Keywords: The Gulf of Gdansk, zooplankton, short-term and seasonal variability Manuscript received 31 January 2003, reviewed 27 February 2003, accepted 7 May 2003.
The idea of the study was to describe short-term and seasonal variations in the composition and abundance of zooplankton in the coastal area of the Gulf of Gdansk at two shore stations and the influence of selected environmental factors (temperature, salinity, wind velocity) on it. The studies were based on material collected in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Gdansk from stations located by the Marine Promenade (Bulwar Nadmorski) in Gdynia and the pier in Sopot. Samples were collected in 2001 mainly at weekly intervals using an open-type plankton net. Environmental parameters were measured at the same time. The zooplankton at the Gdynia and Sopot stations consisted of 30 taxa; Rotatoria, Copepoda and meroplankton were dominants. There was a much higher percentage of Rotatoria and a lower percentage of meroplankton at Sopot than at Gdynia. Considerable differences were apparent in the numbers of particular groups of zooplankton at these stations in the same periods. Simpson's biodiversity index, here based on the zooplankton of the shallow waters off Gdynia and Sopot, was relatively high most of the time. Diversity of mesozooplankton was greatest in July and October. There was a significant correlation between the abundance of mesozooplankton and environmental factors in the case of cladoceran and polychaete larvae. Frequent studies at stations located close to each other illustrate the highly dynamic range of variations occurring in the coastal area: the concentrations of particular organisms fluctuated very considerably from one week to another, even by a factor of several dozen. Nevertheless, the statistically mean numbers of zooplankton at both stations are comparable.
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Content and pattern of organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs and DDT) in blue mussels Mytilus trossulus from the southern Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2003, 45(2), 337-355
Joanna Potrykus1*, Amaya Albalat2, Janusz Pempkowiak1, Cinta Porte2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstancow Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: potrykus@iopan.gda.pl
2Environmental Chemistry Department, CID/CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain
*corresponding author
Keywords: Organic pollutants, mussels, bioaccumulation, Baltic Sea Manuscript received 26 November 2002, reviewed 18 February 2003, accepted 26 February 2003.
The objective of this work was to assess the contents and patterns of selected organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides - DDT) in the southern part of the Baltic Sea proper, using blue mussels, Mytilus trossulus, as sentinel organisms. The mussels were collected from the Baltic Sea off Poland. The sampling programme focused on the mouths of the rivers Odra and Vistula, located respectively in the Pomeranian Bay and the Gulf of Gdansk, both known to be under anthropogenic pressure.
   The analyses of PCBs and DDT were performed by GC-ECD, that of PAHs by GC-MS. Mussels from both the Vistula and Odra estuaries were found to contain higher levels of organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, DDT; 29.7 ng g-1 w.w. (wet weight), 22.3 ng g-1 w.w., 11.2 ng g-1 w.w. respectively) as compared to the reference point (PAHs - 8.6 ng g-1 w.w., PCBs - 1.9 ng g-1 w.w., DDT - 1.3 ng g-1 w.w.).
These results confirm the direct influence of land-based pollution sources on the content of organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs, and DDT) in the southern Baltic Sea, and point to the Gulf of Gdansk as the area most under threat.
   P/A and Fluo/Py ratios indicate that in all the mussels analysed, the contaminants were derived mainly from pyrolitic combustion. The mussels collected along the Polish coast of the Baltic contain mostly tetra-aromatic isomers (fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene), penta-aromatic isomers (benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(e)fluorene, benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)-anthracene) and hexa-aromatics (indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene) rather than di- and tri-aromatics (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene). As regards PCBs, the Baltic mussels contain mostly the more highly chlorinated congeners (penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls). The PCB / pp' DDE and PAH / pp' DDE ratios indicate the predominance of PCBs and PAHs over agriculturally derived DDE in both the Pomeranian Bay and the Gulf of Gdansk.
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