Oceanologia No. 44 (3) / 02


Invited paper



Invited paper

How do marine bacteria produce light, why are they luminescent, and can we employ bacterial bioluminescence in aquatic biotechnology?

Oceanologia 2002, 44(3), 291-305

Grzegorz Węgrzyn1,2, Agata Czyż3
1Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdańsk, Kładki 24, PL-80-822 Gdańsk, Poland;
2Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sw. Wojciecha 5, PL-81-347 Gdynia, Poland
3Laboratory of Molecular Biology (affiliated with the University of Gdańsk), Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kladki 24, PL-80-822 Gdańsk, Poland;

Keywords: bioluminescence, luminescent bacteria, quorum sensing, DNA repair, detection of mutagenic pollution in marine environments

Manuscript received 15 July 2002, reviewed 13 August 2002, accepted 20 August 2002.
Bioluminescence, the phenomenon of light production by living organisms, occurs in forms of life as various as bacteria, fungi and animals. Nevertheless, light-emitting bacteria are the most abundant and widespread of luminescent organisms. Interestingly, most species of such bacteria live in marine environments. In this article, the biochemical mechanism of bacterial luminescence and its genetic regulation are summarized. Although the biochemistry and genetics of light emission by cells have been investigated in detail, the biological role of bacterial luminescence has remained obscure. Here, we discuss recent discoveries that shed new light on this problem. Finally, we provide examples of how bacterial luminescence can be employed in marine biotechnology, especially in the detection of toxic and mutagenic pollution in aquatic environments.
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Heat and salt fluxes in the West Spitsbergen Current area in summer

Oceanologia 2002, 44(3), 307-321

Jan Piechura, Robert Osiński, Tomasz Petelski, Sławomir B. Woźniak
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;

Keywords: heat fluxes, energy fluxes, ocean circulation

Manuscript received 28 March 2002, reviewed 22 May 2002, accepted 20 June 2002.
Fluxes of radiation, sensible and latent heat, and fluxes of heat and salt within the upper layer of the ocean were calculated on the basis of measurements carried out in the area of the Norwegian-Atlantic and West Spitsbergen Currents during summer 2000.
   The sea surface radiation balance was calculated from direct measurements of downward and upward short-wave (solar) radiation, the net radiation fluxes and sea surface temperature. The daily doses of radiation energy reaching and leaving the sea surface were also estimated.
   To calculate the vertical heat fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer the bulk parameterisation method was used. In most cases, the calculated heat fluxes were rather low, the average sensible heat flux was c. 10 W m-2, and the latent heat flux about one order of magnitude higher; this is what could be expected in summer. Salt fluxes to the air in the process of aerosol production are very small and can be neglected.
   In summer the highest quantities of heat and salt are exchanged during mixing with surrounding waters.
   According to our measurements, Atlantic Water on its northward course from about 70oN to 79oN loses about 100 TW of heat and 900 × 103 kg of salt. We thought it could be interesting to find out what happens to them. Some preliminary results of our investigation are presented here.
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Transparency of the North Sea and Baltic Sea - a Secchi depth data mining study
Oceanologia 2002, 44(3), 323-337

Thorkild Aarup*
Department of Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, Rockefeller Complex, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen O., Denmark;

*present address: IOC, UNESCO, 1, rue Miollis, F-75732 Paris cedex 15, France;

Keywords: Secchi depth, data archaeology, North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, Baltic Sea

Manuscript received 24 June 2002, reviewed 29 July 2002, accepted 26 August 2002.
This paper presents the results of a Secchi depth data mining study for the North Sea - Baltic Sea region. 40,829 measurements of Secchi depth were compiled from the area as a result of this study. 4.3% of the observations were found in the international data centers [ICES Oceanographic Data Center in Denmark and the World Ocean Data Center A (WDC-A) in the USA], while 95.7% of the data was provided by individuals and ocean research institutions from the surrounding North Sea and Baltic Sea countries. Inquiries made at the World Ocean Data Center B (WDC-B) in Russia suggested that there could be significant additional holdings in that archive but, unfortunately, no data could be made available. The earliest Secchi depth measurement retrieved in this study dates back to 1902 for the Baltic Sea, while the bulk of the measurements were gathered after 1970. The spatial distribution of Secchi depth measurements in the North Sea is very uneven with surprisingly large sampling gaps in the Western North Sea. Quarterly and annual Secchi depth maps with a 0.5o × 0.5o spatial resolution are provided for the transition area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea (4oE-16oE, 53oN-60oN).
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Natural water fluorescence characteristics based on lidar investigations of a surface water layer polluted by an oil film; the Baltic cruise - May 2000
Oceanologia 2002, 44(3), 339-354

Violetta Drozdowska1, Sergey Babichenko2, Aleksey Lisin2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
2Laser Diagnostic Instruments, Kadaka tee 113a, 12915 Tallinn, Estonia

Keywords: fluorescence, lidar, oil pollution, natural seawater components, the Baltic Sea

Manuscript received 6 June 2002, reviewed 19 July 2002, accepted 1 August 2002.
Several sea and laboratory experiments have been carried out to detect and determine the fluorescence characteristics of seawater and its natural fluorescing components and to analyse the influence of oil in the surface water layer on the lidar-induced return signal. The aim of the laboratory investigations was to create a database of different natural water types and of water polluted with Petrobaltic oil. During the r/v 'Oceania' cruise in the southern Baltic Sea two lidar methods were applied simultaneously to detect and analyse the influence of the fluorescence emission of oil on the fluorescence spectrum of seawater. Detection of oil pollution can be used to correct the fluorescent factors of fluorescing components on the basis of natural seawater fluorescence spectra.
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The significance of dissolved organic matter photodegradation as a source of ammonium in natural waters

Oceanologia 2002, 44(3), 355-365

Waldemar Grzybowski
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, al. Marszalka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;

Keywords: dissolved organic matter, photodegradation, ammonium

Manuscript received 1 July 2002, reviewed 21 August 2002, accepted 30 August 2002.
Samples of sea, river and pond water of different absorbance were exposed to artificial radiation resembling sunlight in the UV range. A statistically significant increase in ammonium concentration was detected in pond water of the highest absorbance after 5 h of irradiation. In sea and river water a corresponding increase (< 0.5 µM) was recorded after an exposure time of 25 hours. The bulk characteristics of the analysed samples were insufficient to explain the observed differences.
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Stranded Zostera marina L. vs wrack fauna community interactions on a Baltic sandy beach (Hel, Poland): a short-term pilot study.
Part II. Driftline effects of succession changes and colonisation of beach fauna

Oceanologia 2002, 44(3), 367-387

Marcin F. Jędrzejczak
Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, Jana III Sobieskiego 18/19, PL-80-952 Gdańsk, Poland;

Keywords: sandy beach, litterbags, wrack degradation, Zostera marina, successional colonisation, Talitrus saltator, insects, meiofauna

Manuscript received 25 March 2002, reviewed 6 May 2002, accepted 15 May 2002.
This paper evaluates the second part of a three-year field study to investigate the effects of the beach macro- and meiofauna community structure on the decay of stranded wrack on Hel Beach (see Jędrzejczak 2002), focusing on successional changes and the colonisation of wrack by beach fauna. The investigation enabled the associated faunal assemblages to be characterised. Zostera marina tissue was colonised by the supralittoral fauna in two distinct phases. The macrofauna, including the talitrid amphipod Talitrus saltator, adult Diptera and Coleoptera, colonised the wrack within a day, with maximum numbers being recorded after 3 days. Thereafter, their numbers in the samples declined and the meiofauna, consisting of nematodes, oligochaetes, turbellarians and dipteran larvae, became increasingly abundant. After 18 days, the wrack surface was dominated by meiofauna. This faunal succession was not directly related to the degradation of the seagrass tissue, which proceeded linearly throughout the study period. Exclusion of macrofauna from the wrack by the use of < 1 mm mesh litterbags had no appreciable effect on the rate of dry matter loss. Therefore, the major macrofaunal wrack consumers, including T. saltator and Coleoptera, did not affect the rate of seagrass disintegration. The effect of meiofaunal nematodes, oligochaetes, gastrotrichs and turbellarians on wrack breakdown could not be accurately determined. However, the development of the meiofaunal community suggested that changes in the fauna community were linked more closely to successional changes in the chemistry and/or microflora of the beach wrack than to its physical breakdown.
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High intensity elastic waves in water (habilitation thesis in underwater acoustics) - review by Antoni Śliwinski
Oceanologia 2002, 44(3), 389-391

Grażyna Grelowska
Naval Academy of Gdynia, Smidowicza 71, PL-81-919 Gdynia, Poland;
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