Oceanologia No. 43 (1) / 01



Invited paper



The Editor would like to thank the all reviewers of the papers submitted to OCEANOLOGIA in 2000.
The following reviewers' names are printed with their kind permission: Dr. Soonmo An (Marine Science Institute, University of Texas, USA) • Dr. Santiago J. Andrade (Marine Chemistry Laboratory, Argentine Institute of Oceanography, Bahía Blanca, Argentina) • Assoc. Prof. Thomas S. Bianchi (Institute for Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Tulane University, New Orleans, USA) • Dr. Ryszard Bojanowski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Assoc. Prof. Jerzy Bolałek (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Erik Bonsdorff (Dept. of Biology, Åbo Akademi University, Finland) • Prof. Alec C. Brown (University of Cape Town, South Africa) • Prof. Juliusz Chojnacki (Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Wojciech Donderski (Nicolaus Copernic s University, Toruń, Poland) • Prof. Danuta Frąckowiak (University of Technology, Poznań, Poland) • Dr. Ronnie Glud (Marine Biological Laboratory Helsingør, University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark) • Prof. Renata Głośnicka (Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Howard R. Gordon (Dept. of Physics, University of Miami, USA) • Assoc. Prof. Józef Grabowski (University of Technology, Poznań, Poland) • Prof. Krzysztof Jażdżewski (University of Łódź, Poland) • Dr. Miroslaw Jonasz (MJC Optical Technology, Beaconsfield, Canada) • Dr. Adam Krężel (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Birger Larsen M.Sc. , Senior Research Geologist (GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark) • Doc. Dr. Henry Lasota (Technical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr. habil. Hans U. Lass (Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany) • Dr. Adam Latała (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Erkki Leppäkoski (Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo Akademi University, Finland) • Dr. Iosif M. Levin (P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, St. Petersburg Branch, Russia) • Dr. Hanna Mazur-Marzec (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Stanisław Massel (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Anton McLachlan (College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman) • Prof. Geoffrey E. Millward (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom) • Prof. Stanisław Musielak(University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Dietwart Nehring (Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany) • Ph. D. Christian Neusüß (Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany) • Prof. Stanisław Niewolak (University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland) • Doc. Dr. Jan Parafiniuk (University of Warsaw, Poland) • Dr. Gunnar Pedersen (Akvaplan-niva Polar Environmental Center, Tromso, Norway) • Prof. Janusz Pempkowiak (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Doc. Dr. Sergey I. Pogosyan (Dept. of Biophysics, Lomonosov' Moscow State University, Russia) • Assoc. Prof. Gorzysław Poleszczuk (University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Mikolaj Protasowicki (Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Zbigniew Pruszak (Institute of Hydro-Engineering PAS, Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr. Teresa Radziejewska (Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Philip S. Rainbow (The Natural History M se m, London, United Kingdom) • Prof. Henry Renk (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Andrey Rubin (Dept. of Biophysics, Lomonosov' Moscow State University, Russia) • Alexander P. Ryzhikh, Minor Scientific Researcher (Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) • Dr. Bernd Schneider (Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany) • Dr. Andrzej Stolyhwo (Technical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Ewa Styczyńska-Jurewicz (Marine Biology Centre PAS, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Antoni Śliwiński (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Piotr Szefer (Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. John Wahr (Dept. of Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA) • Dr. Teresa Węgleńska (Institute of Ecology PAS, Łomianki, Dziekanów Leśny, Poland) • Prof. Jan Marcin Węsławski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Aleksander Winnicki (Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland) • Assoc. Prof. Zbigniew Witek (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Maciej Wołowicz (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr. Maren Voss (Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany) • Assoc. Prof. Bogdan Woźniak (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Andrzej Zieliński (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland)

The Baltic Sea - an example of how to protect marine coastal ecosystems
Oceanologia 2001, 43 (1), 5-22

Dietwart Nehring
Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Seestrasse 15, 18112, Germany;

Keywords: Baltic Sea, enviromental load, ecosystem protection

Manuscript received 20 November 2000, accepted 7 December 2000.
The Baltic Sea covers an area of 415 000 km2. A typical brackish sea, it is very sensitive to anthropogenic activities. Inorganic nutrients, trace metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and crude oil products are contaminants studied in the Baltic Monitoring Programme of HELCOM. The data collected by the riparian countries forms the basis for the periodic assessments of the state of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea Area produced by HELCOM every five years. Since 1992 marine nature conservation has been part of the HELCOM convention.
According to the third status report issued in 1996, it was the first time that HELCOM could strike a positive balance with regard to the decreasing environmental load. This is also reflected in lower concentrations of harmful substances in fish, marine mammals and seabirds in the Baltic Sea Area. The reasons for this progress are the protective actions initiated by HELCOM and the economic collapse in some of the former East Bloc countries, the latter resulting in an abrupt fall in industrial and agricultural production. Although the restoration of the Baltic ecosystem has only just begun, the protective measures introduced to achieve this aim can serve as an example of how to solve similar problems in other semi-enclosed basins and shelf seas.
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Selected ionic components of the marine aerosol over the Gulf of Gdańsk
Oceanologia 2001, 43 (1), 23-37

Anita Nadstazik, Lucyna Falkowska
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;

Keywords: origin of aerosols, nitrate, macroelements, chloride losses

Manuscript received 1 December 2000, reviewed 25 January 2001, accepted 1 February 2001.
Aerosol samples were collected in May 1997 at a routine off-shore measurement station in the Gdańsk Deep region and at Hel, the latter being a coastal station situated at the tip of the Hel Peninsula. Concentrations of NO3, Cl, Na+, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+ were measured simultaneously at both stations.
The sea influences the chemical composition of aerosols in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdańsk regardless of season, time of day or direction of advection. Sodium chloride was always present in aerosols in the form of large particles originating from seawater. Besides the marine chloride and nitrate, additional amounts of these ions could have been of terrigenous origin. Sodium and chloride concentrations were dominant in the total mass of aerosols at both stations; however, these concentrations were three times higher at the marine station. Similarly, the concentrations of ions originating from seawater, like magnesium and calcium, were, on average, three times higher at the marine station.
The chemical composition of aerosols and air over the Gulf of Gdańsk was modified through the evaporation of chloride from the marine salt particles in reactions with gaseous nitric and sulphuric acids. A certain deficit of chloride versus sodium ions was noted. At the marine station the Cl/Na+ ratio reached 0.89 ± 0.2, on average, while over the land station it was 0.93 ± 0.25, i.e. lower than the seawater standard.
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Spectral light absorption by yellow substance in the Kattegat-Skagerrak area
Oceanologia 2001, 43 (1), 39-60

Niels K. Højerslev
Niels Bohr Institute of Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; nkh@gfy.ku.uk

Eyvind Aas
Department of Geophysics, University of Oslo, POB 1022 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo, Norway; eyvindaas@geofysikk.uio.no

Keywords: yellow substance, optical properties, absorption coefficient, spectral slope, Skagerrak, Kattegat, Baltic, scandinavian fjords

Manuscript received 28 December 2000, reviewed 22 January 2001, accepted 26 January 2001.
More than 1500 water samples were taken from the Kattegat, the Skagerrak and adjacent waters. The value of the absorption coefficient of yellow substance at 310 nm was found to vary from 0.06 to 7.4 m-1 in the open coastal waters, with a mean value of 1.3 m-1. The corresponding wavelength-averaged value (250-450 nm) of the semilogarithmic spectral slope of the coefficient ranges from 0.008 to 0.042 nm-1, and the mean value is 0.023 nm-1. Closer to river discharges, as in the fjords, the values of the slope seem to be more constant at around 0.0175 ± 0.0015 nm-1. In this area the slope must then be known in order to compare absorption at different wavelengths or to model the yellow substance absorption.
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Run-up of dispersive and breaking waves on beaches
Oceanologia 2001, 43 (1), 61-97

Stanisław R. Massel
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland; smas@iopan.gda.pl

Efim N. Pelinovsky
Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulyanov 46, RU-603600 Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia; enpeli@appl.nnov.su

Keywords: surface waves, run-up process, sandy beaches, filtration, mathematical modelling

Manuscript received 18 December 2000, reviewed 8 February 2001, accepted 12 February 2001.
Transformation of waves on sandy beaches, their breaking, set-up and run-up are the main factors contributing to fluctuations in the water table and groundwater flow. In this paper, the run-up mechanisms have been studied using analytical models. In contrast to the standard models, the waves approaching the shoreline are assumed to be dispersive and the equivalence of the non-linear and linear solutions for the extreme characteristics of wave run-up, such as the height of maximum run-up and the velocity of run-up, are used.
A linear system of equations for the run-up of breaking waves is developed. This system is based on the application of the mild-slope equation in the deeper area, where waves are dispersive, while the linear equations of shallow water are applied close to the shoreline, where the water depth is a linear function of distance. The dissipation factor in the shallow water equation has been formulated using its resemblance to the mild-slope equation for a non-permeable sea bottom. Application of the method is illustrated for various bottom profiles and wave characteristics, and theoretical results compared well with experimental data. These solutions of the run-up phenomena will assist future studies on wave-induced beach groundwater flow.
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Lunar nodal tide in the Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2001, 43 (1), 99-112

Andrzej Wróblewski
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland; wroblew@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: sea level, nodal tide, atmospheric pressure, wind

Manuscript received 15 November 2000, reviewed 9 January 2001, accepted 12 February 2001.
The nodal tide in the Baltic Sea was studied on the basis of the Stockholm tide-gauge readings for 1825-1984; data from the tide gauge at Swinoujscie for the same period provided comparative material. The Stockholm readings are highly accurate and are considered representative of sea levels in the whole Baltic; hence, the final computations were performed for the readings from this particular tide gauge for the period 1888-1980. The tidal amplitude obtained from measurements uncorrected for atmospheric pressure or wind field was compared with that forced only by atmospheric effects. The amplitude of the recorded nodal tide was the same as the equilibrium tide amplitude calculated for Stockholm. Calculations for equilibrium tide amplitudes were also performed for the extreme latitudes of the Baltic basin.
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Seasonal variability of benthic ammonium release in the surface sediments of the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2001, 43 (1), 113-136

Dorota Maksymowska-Brossard
CREMA-L'Houmeau, Centre de Recherche en Ecologie Marine et Aquaculturé, UMR 10 CNRS-IFREMER, B. P. 5, 17-137 L'Houmeau, France; doni.brossard@infonie.fr

Halina Piekarek-Jankowska
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378, Gdynia, Poland; Halina.Jankowska@ocean.univ.gda.pl

Keywords:ammonium, benthic fluxes, Eh, sediments, southern Baltic Sea

Manuscript received 29 September 2000, reviewed 9 November 2000, accepted 24 January 2001.
This paper describes the seasonal and spatial variations of diffusive sediment- water ammonium fluxes in the western part of the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic). It assesses the potential environmental controls of these fluxes, such as the inflow of organic matter to bottom sediments and its quality, temperature-induced degradation of organic matter, and the redox potential of sediments. Ammonium fluxes, calculated using Fick's first law, were always in the direction from the sediment into the water column and differed significantly with respect to sediment type. Fluxes were most intensive in sediments with the highest silt-clay fraction located in the deepest parts of the study area. The mean annual diffusive fluxes of ammonium from sediments to near-bottom water were estimated at 5.24 tonnes km-2 year-1 for silty-clays, 1.85 tonnes km-2 year-1 for silty-sands and 1.03 tonnes km-2 year-1 for sandy sediments. There was a high seasonal variation, with the greatest ammonium release in summer and early autumn, when the temperature of near-bottom water was the highest. On the basis of the calculated diffusive ammonium fluxes, we estimated that approximately 2700 tonnes of N-NH4+ are released annually from the surface sediments of the western part of the Gulf of Gdańsk, providing a minimum of 10% of the mineral nitrogen essential for primary production in surface waters. Our results are undoubtedly underestimated, as we disregarded advective ammonium fluxes, which in some areas of the Gulf of Gdańsk could well be comparable to diffusive fluxes.
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