Oceanologia No. 42 (3) / 00


Invited paper



Invited paper

The evolution of the southern Baltic coastal zone
Oceanologia 2000, 42 (3), 285-303

Józef E. Mojski
The Polish Geological Institute, Branch of Marine Geology, Kościerska 5, PL-80-953 Gdańsk, Poland

Keywords: coastal zone displacement, Late Glacial, Holocene, forecast

Manuscript received 16 June 2000, reviewed 10 August 2000, accepted 17 August 2000.
This article discusses the formation and evolution of the coastal zone of the southern Baltic from the decay of the last Scandinavian ice-sheet, which took place some 14 ka BP. During the first 4 ka, the shores of the then southern Baltic basins were shaped under the dominant influence of considerable variations in water level and the young, post-glacial topography emerging from under the ice. Later, until the beginning of the Atlantic transgression, the shores were also unstable, because sea level changes resulting from periodic connections with the World Ocean followed one another in rapid succession. Since that transgression destroyed much of the former shoreline, its reconstruction is at best highly problematical, and in some places no longer possible. The maximum range of the Litorina Sea gave rise to a coastal zone that in many places is to this day quite conspicuous in the local topography and sediments. During the last 4 ka, the shoreline has changed relatively little, thus the present shoreline is largely redolent of the original one. In the coming 100 years or so, the abrasion of the cliffs along the southern Baltic shore will probably accelerate, as will the retrogradation of certain sections of the shoreline, with the result that the shoreline will be less of a straight line than it is at present. Land up to a height of 1 m above sea level will be inundated. The greatest changes in the lie of the shoreline are to be expected in the River Wisla (Vistula) delta and around the Zalew Szczecinski (Oderhaff, Szczecin Lagoon).
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Sources of particulate selenium in the Baltic Sea atmosphere
Oceanologia 2000, 42 (3), 305-313

Beata Dudzińska-Huczuk1, Bernd Schneider2, Jerzy Bolałek1
1Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland; bejka@sat.ocean.univ.gda.pl, jerzyb@sat.ocean.univ.gda.pl
2Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestrasse 15, 18119 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany; bernd.schneider@io-warnemuende.de

Keywords: selenium, aerosol, Baltic Sea

Manuscript received 13 April 2000, reviewed 9 May 2000, accepted 13 June 2000.
To determine the atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of particulate selenium (Se), aerosols were collected by air filtration and impactor sampling at the Kap Arkona coastal weather station on the Island of Rügen. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to determine Se and numerous other elements as well. The dependence of the Se concentration on the wind direction and the results of a regression analysis indicated that Se associated with sub-micron particles is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. The pronounced relationship between Se and Cu indicated that copper smelting is a major source of atmospheric selenium. A marine Se contribution was identified for particles larger than 2 µm.
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Evaluation of sound extinction and echo interference in densely aggregated zooplankton
Oceanologia 2000, 42 (3), 315-334

Natalia Gorska
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland; gorska@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: sound extinction, echo interference, dense zooplankton aggregation

Manuscript received 8 November 1999, reviewed 29 June 2000, accepted 4 July 2000.
The investigation of sound extinction and echo interference is important as regards the accurate assessment of the abundance of densely aggregated zooplankton. To study these effects,the analytical model describing sound backscattering by an aggregation of isotropic scatterers (Rytov et al. 1978, Sun & Gimenez 1992) has been extended to the case of densely aggregated elongated zooplankton. The evaluation of the effects in the case of a dense krill aggregation demonstrates that they can be significant and should be taken into account.
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Abundance and species composition of plankton in the Gulf of Gdańsk near the planned underwater outfall of the Gdańsk-Wschód (Gdańsk-East) sewage treatment plant
Oceanologia 2000, 42 (3), 335-357

Maria I. Żmijewska1, Elżbieta Niemkiewicz2, Luiza Bielecka1
1Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland; ocemiz@univ.gda.pl
2Marine Biology Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sw. Wojciecha 5, PL-81-347 Gdynia, Poland

Keywords: Baltic Sea, plankton, distribution

Manuscript received 24 March 2000, reviewed 6 July 2000, accepted 2 August 2000.
The aim of this paper is to determine the current biological state of life in the pelagic zone of the Gulf of Gdańsk in relation to the planned start-up of an underwater outfall which will discharge sewage from the Gdańsk-Wschód (Gdańsk-East) sewage treatment plant. The plankton material was collected during two research cruises in July and October 1998. The samples were taken at 15 stations in four profiles located near Wyspa Sobieszewska (Sobieszewo Island), perpendicular to the coastline. Both the taxonomic and numerical structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton were typical of the coastal area of the Gulf of Gdańsk. The species diversity depends on hydrological conditions, mainly input from the River Wisla (Vistula). The abundance and biomass of phytoplankton in 1998 were several times lower than in 1994 and 1995 in the area off Gorki Wschódnie, the profile located closest to the planned construction site. This could have been caused by generally lower temperatures in 1998 in comparison to previous years. In the investigated area only traces of algal eutrophication indicator species were noted. However, potentially toxic species were confirmed and were most abundant near the Wisla mouth. The highest concentrations of pelagic fauna occur in the shallowest area closest to the shoreline. Long-term observations of the dynamics of the variations in abundance and species composition indicate the increasing significance of one particular species - Acartia bifilosa.
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Preliminary comparison between various models of the long-wave radiation budget of the sea and experimental data from the Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2000, 42 (3), 359-369

Tomasz Zapadka1, Sławomir B. Woźniak2
1Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, Arciszewskiego 22 B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland; zapad@wsp.slupsk.pl
2Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland; woznjr@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: long-wave radiation flux, net infra-red radiation, energy exchange between the sea and the atmosphere

Manuscript received 14 March 2000, reviewed 4 May 2000, accepted 30 June 2000.
This paper discusses existing models of long-wave radiation exchange between the sea surface and the atmosphere, and compares them with experimental data. The latter were based on empirical data collected in the southern Baltic during cruises of r/v `Oceania'. To a greater or lesser extent, all the models were encumbered with significant systematic and statistical errors. The probable reasons for these discrepancies are given.
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A new predatory cladoceran Cercopagis (Cercopagis) pengoi (Ostroumov 1891) in the Gulf of Gdańsk
Oceanologia 2000, 42 (3), 371-374

Luiza Bielecka, Maria I. Żmijewska, Agnieszka Szymborska
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland; ocelb@monika.univ.gda.pl

Keywords: Baltic Sea, plankton, a new species

Manuscript received 12 April 2000, reviewed 28 July 2000, accepted 10 August.
Cercopagis pengoi, a species native to the Ponto-Caspian area, was recorded for the first time in the Baltic Sea in the Gulf of Riga and in the open Gulf of Finland in 1992. Sampling in the shallow coastal area of the western part of the Gulf of Gdańsk at weekly intervals between April 1999 and April 2000 revealed the presence of C. pengoi in the zooplankton community. The species was recorded twice, at densities of 1369 indiv. m-3 on 30 July 1999 and 421 indiv. m-3 on 5 August 1999, when the water temperature was at its maximum, in excess of 21.7oC and 23.9oC respectively. C. pengoi had never been recorded in the Gulf of Gdańsk prior to 1999.
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The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (Decapoda: Grapsidae) from Polish waters
Oceanologia 2000, 42 (3), 375-383

Monika Normant, Anna Wiszniewska, Anna Szaniawska
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland; monika.normant@ocean.univ.gda.pl

Keywords: catadromous species, Eriocheir sinensis, non-indigenous organism

Manuscript received 2 June 2000, reviewed 19 June 2000, accepted 30 June 2000.
The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis Milne-Edwards, 1854 is a newcomer to the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have shown that since the 1940s single large specimens of this species have been caught annually in Polish waters. The invasion of the Chinese mitten crab has been reported from many European countries, including Poland, where it is especially abundant in the Odra Estuary. Of 186 specimens captured in Lake Dabie in August 1998, 45% were females and 55% males. The carapace width of these crabs varied between 53 and 88 mm and the average wet weight was 169 ± 45.3 g.
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The misalignment angle in vessel-mounted ADCP
Oceanologia 2000, 42 (3), 385-394

Robert Osiński
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland; roberto@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: acoustic Doppler current profiler, misalignment angle, calibration

Manuscript received 23 February 2000, reviewed 28 July 2000, accepted 4 August.
A description of the misalignment angle and the consequences if it occurs is given. It is shown that because of gyrocompass errors, the misalignment angle error a has to be computed for each cruise. A simple method of calibrating the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a vessel has been devised by fitting the cosinusoidal function. This is a post-processing method, suitable for calibrating previously collected data. Nevertheless, because of ADCP's constructional peculiarities, the procedure must be repeated for each cruise.
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