Oceanologia No. 48 (1) / 06



Invited paper




The Editor would like to thank all who in the year 2005 reviewed the papers submitted to Oceanologia.
The following reviewer's names are printed by their kind permission:

Dr Edward M. Armstrong (Physical Oceanography DAAC, Pasadena, USA) • Prof. Kevin Arrigo (Stanford University, USA) • Prof. Jerzy Bolałek (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Barbara Bulgarelli (Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy) • Prof. Sebastiano Calvo (University of Palermo, Italy) • Prof. Juliusz Chojnacki (Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland) • Dr Marleen De Troch (Ghent University, Belgium) • Prof. Czesław Druet (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Doc. Jolanta Ejsmont-Karabin (Centre for Ecological Research PAS, Dziekanów Leśny, Poland) • Prof. Emelyan M. Emelyanov (Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Kaliningrad, Russia) • Prof. Jerzy Falandysz (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Rainer Feistel (Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany) • Prof. J. G. Ferreira (IMAR - Centre for Ecological Modelling, Caparica, Portugal) • Prof. Gerald M. Friedman (Northeastern Science Foundation/Rensselaer Center of Applied Geology, Troy, USA) • Dr Tom Gheskiere (Marine Biology Section, Ghent University, Belgium) • Dr Jorge L. Hau (University of Surrey, Guildford, UK) • Prof. Janina Heldt (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Adam Hulanicki (Warsaw University, Poland) • Doc. Andrzej Jankowski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Krzysztof Jażdżewski (University of Łódź, Poland) • Prof. Hiroshi Kitazato (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan) • Doc. Alicja Kosakowska (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Doc. Grażyna Kowalewska (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Zygmunt Kowalik (University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA) • Prof. Adam Krężel (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Robert A. Krebs (Cleveland State University, USA) • Dr Andreas Lehmann (Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Kiel, Germany) • Prof. Erkki Leppäkoski (Åbo Akademi University, Åbo/Turku Finland) • Doc. Tomasz Linkowski (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Dr Sergio G. Longhitano (University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy) • Prof. Stanisław R. Massel (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Anton McLachlan (Sultan Qaboos University, Oman) • Dr Volker Mohrholz (Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany) • Prof. Kai Myrberg (Finnish Institute for Marine Research, Helsinki, Finland) • Dr Klaus Nagel (Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany) • Prof. Dietwart Nehring (Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany) • Prof. Sergej Olenin (Klaipeda University, Lithuania) • Prof. Efim Pelinovsky (Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) • Prof. Janusz Pempkowiak (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Hartmut Peters (University of Miami, USA) • Prof. Jan Piechura (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr. Juan Luis Gomez Pinchetti (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain) • Prof. Zbigniew Pruszak (Institute of Hydroengineering PAS, Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Teresa Radziejewska (University of Szczecin, Poland) • Dr Christopher Robinson (Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland) • Dr Anna Sabbatini (Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy) • Dr Bernd Schneider (Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Germany) • Dr Marc Schröder (Free University of Berlin, Germany) • Dr Herbert Siegel (Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Germany) • Dr Andrzej Sokołowski (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Anders Stigebrandt (Göteborg University, Sweden) • Prof. Dariusz Stramski (Scripps Institution of Oceanography at San Diego, La Jolla, USA) • Prof. Anna Szaniawska (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Piotr Szefer (Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Wojciech Szeligiewicz (Centre for Ecological Research PAS, Dziekanów Leśny, Poland) • Prof. Maria Thessalou-Legaki (University of Athens, Greece) • Prof. Alf Törum (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway) • Prof. Helmuth Thomas (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada) • Prof. Jan Marcin Węsławski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr John Williams (University of Southampton, UK) • Prof. Zbigniew Witek (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Andrzej Witkowski (University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Maciej Wołowicz (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Michelle Wood (University of Oregon, Eugene, USA) • Dr Simon W. Wright (Australian Antarctic Division and Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Tasmania, Australia) • Prof. L. D. Wright (The College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, USA) • Dr Giuseppe Zibordi (Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy) • Prof. Maria Żmijewska (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Ludwik Żmudziński (Pomeranian Pedagogical Academy in Słupsk, Poland).

Invited paper

The integrated Arctic Ocean Observing System (iAOOS): an AOSB-CliC Observing Plan for the International Polar Year
Oceanologia 2006, 48(1), 5-21

Bob Dickson
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science
Lowestoft NR33 0HT, UK

Keywords: International Polar Year, climate change, Arctic Ocean, novel instrumentation, sea-ice

Received 9 January 2006, revised 3 February 2006, accepted 6 February 2006.
The debate on the climatic impact of Arctic change is currently focused on the fate of the perennial sea-ice and the climatic and social effects of its disappearance. Developments in our observing techniques mean that we are in prospect of being technically able to describe the ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system of high northern latitudes operating as a complete system for the first time. Understanding this system and improving its predictability in models seems to be our most direct way of extending the ability of society to mitigate for or adapt to its changes, including global change. The integrated Arctic Ocean Observing System (iAOOS), described here, is a means of piecing together the available PIs, gear, ships and funding on the pan-Arctic scale that seems necessary to making the attempt, and the International Polar Year (2007-2009) provides the necessary stimulus for doing so.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 3003 KB


Experiments on wave motion and suspended sediment concentration at Nang Hai, Can Gio mangrove forest, Southern Vietnam
Oceanologia 2006, 48(1), 23-40

Vo Luong Hong Phuoc, Stanisław R. Massel
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: vlhphuoc@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: wave motion, suspended sediment concentration, Can Gio mangrove forest, Southern Vietnam

Received 11 November 2005, revised 13 February 2006, accepted 14 February 2006.
Biogeochemical and trophodynamic processes as well as hydrodynamic factors play a major role in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems. This study outlines field experiments on wave motion and suspended sediment concentration carried out at Nang Hai, Can Gio mangrove forest, Southern Vietnam. Pressure sensors were used to measure sea surface elevation, and Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBS) were applied to detect infrared (IR) radiation scattered from suspended particles in order to measure turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations.
    The experimental results indicate that most of the energy is dissipated inside the mangrove forest as a result of wave-trunk interactions and wave breaking. The suspended sediment concentration depends on wave intensity and tidal current velocity. Wave action is one of the main factors forcing sediment transport and coastal erosion at the study site; even the wave field at the study site is not so strong. The establishment of mangrove vegetation can encourage the deposition of sediment, or at least the retention of the flood-tide sediment influx.

full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 851 KB

Modelling the seasonal dynamics of marine plankton in the southern Baltic Sea. Part 2. Numerical simulations
Oceanologia 2006, 48(1), 41-71

Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: dzierzb@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: nutrients, phytoplankton, microzooplankton, Pseudocalanus elongatus, Clupea harengus, Baltic Sea, turbulence, encounter rate

Received 12 September 2005, revised 20 February 2006, accepted 24 February 2006.
This work presents numerical simulations of the time-dependent vertical distributions of phytoplankton, microzooplankton, Pseudocalanus elongatus, early juvenile herring (Clupea harengus) and two nutrient components (total inorganic nitrogen and phosphate) using the 1D-Coupled Ecosystem Model with a high-resolution mesozooplankton (herbivorous copepods) module for P. elongatus and a simple prey-predator model for early juvenile herring C. harengus. This model was discussed in detail in Part 1. The calculations were done for one year (1999) for astation in the Gdańsk Deep (southern Baltic Sea). The results of the simulations were compared with the mean concentrations of nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton recorded in situ. The differences between the calculated and mean recorded values of nutrients and phytoplankton are c. 5-30% and depend on the month and depth for which the calculations were done. However, the calculated depth-integrated biomass of P. elongatus differs from the mean recorded value. This difference ranges from 30 to 50% at the end of May. The 1DCEM model can be used to forecast ecological changes in the southern Baltic Sea.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 403 KB

Methylphenanthrenes in the southern Baltic as markers of petrogenic pollution
Oceanologia 2006, no 48(1), pp.73-86

Ludwik Lubecki, Małgorzata Szymczak-Żyła, Grażyna Kowalewska*
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: kowalewska@iopan.gda.pl
* corresponding author

Keywords: PAHs, methylphenanthrenes, sediment(s), Baltic, petrogenic pollution

Received 20 October 2005, revised 21 February 2006, accepted 24 February 2006.
Mono- and dimethylphenanthrenes were determined in recent (0-10 cm) sediments collected at about 30 stations in the southern Baltic Sea from 1995 to 2001. The stations were located in the Szczecin Lagoon, the Pomeranian Bay, the Bornholm Deep, the open sea (without the Bornholm and Gdańsk Deeps), the Gdańsk Deep, and the Gulf of Gdańsk including the Wisła (Vistula) Lagoon. The results were related to the unsubstituted PAH content. The annual load of methylphenanthrenes in relation to unsubstituted PAHs in the Rivers Odra and Wisła was estimated. Methylphenanthrenes are more abundant in the Odra estuary than in the Wisła estuary, and more abundant in the coastal sediments than in the open sea sediments. The results indicate that methylphenanthrenes related to the lower molecular, unsubstituted PAHs are a good measure of petrogenic pollution in the southern Baltic.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 181 KB

Depositional environment of sediments along the southern coast of Tamil Nadu, India
Oceanologia 2006, no 48(1), pp.87-102

Nimalanathan Angusamy1,*, G. Victor Rajamanickam2
1 Department of Earth Sciences, Tamil University,
Thanjavur - 613 005, India;
e-mail: angu1@yahoo.com

*corresponding author
2 Department of Disaster Management, SASTRA Deemed University,
Thanjavur - 613 402, India

Keywords: grain size, beach sediments, depositional environment, India

Received 1 August 2005, revised 30 January 2006, accepted 3 February 2006.
Grain size studies of sediments from beaches in the region from Mandapam to Kanyakumari, divided into 5 sectors, indicate that sediments are unimodal to polymodal in nature, coarse to fine grained, moderately to poorly sorted, and positively-negatively skewed in character. The inference to be drawn from these studies is that the variation in sedimentological parameters is governed by fluvial input, wave dynamics, and littoral transport of the sediments. Bivariant plots show that the Mandapam and Kanyakumari sectors can be classified as beach environments, whereas the Tuticorin and Valinokkam sectors come under the influence of riverine environments and the dune environment in the Manappad sector. The CM pattern of all five sectors shows a clustered distribution of sediments in the PQ and QR segments, indicating a graded mode of deposition. Visher diagrams depict a wave shadow environment for the Mandapam sector, whereas the Valinokkam, Tuticorin and Manappad sectors show double saltation populations characteristic of beaches, and the Kanyakumari sector is characterized by a more truncated population characteristic of a plunge zone, which is a high-energy environment.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 222 KB

Annual reproductive cycle in two free living populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.): patterns of ovarian and testicular development
Oceanologia 2006, no 48(1), pp.103-124

Ewa Sokołowska*, Ewa Kulczykowska
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Department of Genetics and Marine Biotechnology,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: ewakub@cbmpan.gdynia.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: stickleback, breeding, gonads, vitellogenesis, spermatogenesis

Received 29 November 2005, revised 10 February 2006, accepted 13 February 2006.
The annual reproductive cycle in two wild populations of three-spined stickleback was studied. Sticklebacks from the Dead Vistula River (Martwa Wisła) (brackish water) and the Oliva Stream (Potok Oliwski) (freshwater) were exposed to annual environmental changes in their natural habitats. Ovaries and livers (females), and testes and kidneys (males) were collected during 1-2 years. The gonadosomatic IG, hepatosomatic IH, nephrosomatic IN indices, kidney epithelium height (KEH) and size of oocytes were calculated.The number of mature oocytes and percentage of ovulating females were determined during the spawning season. Histological changes in the ovaries and testes were described throughout a year. Annual reproductive cycles were similar in both populations of sticklebacks. This is the first histological and morphological study carried out throughout a year, simultaneously in two wild populations of three-spined sticklebacks inhabiting different environments. An improved scale of gonadal development in conjunction with the determined indices and fecundity give a comprehensive description of the reproductive cycle. These new observations, in combination with previously reported features, provide a universal scale that can be successfully used to distinguish all phases of gametogenesis in sticklebacks in different habitats.
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Optimising the storage and extraction of chlorophyll samples
Oceanologia 2006, no 48(1), pp.125-144

Norbert Wasmund1,*, Ina Topp1, Dirk Schories2
1Baltic Sea Research Institute,
Seestrasse 15, D-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany;
e-mail: norbert.wasmund@io-warnemuende.de

*corresponding author
2University of Rostock,
Albert Einstein Strasse 3, D-18051 Rostock, Germany

Keywords: chlorophyll, methodology, extraction, storage, freezing

Received 1 August 2005, revised 22 December 2005, accepted 4 January 2006.
The effect of different methodological steps on the analysis of chlorophyll a (chl a) was tested with algae cultures and Baltic Sea water. Selected experiments were tested with ANOVAs for significant differences between treatments. The results of the experiments led to the following recommendations: the sample volume should be low so that filtration takes no longer than 10 min. Extracts rather than filters should be stored if storage of the samples at -20°C is required. However, quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen is recommended. The extraction efficiency was much better in 96% ethanol than in 90% acetone - extraction in the latter solvent requires the filters to be homogenised. The extraction time has no significant influence within a range of 3 to 24 hours if the recommended 96% ethanol is used
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Basis for a valuation of the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea: Rationale and quest for tools
Oceanologia 2006, no 48(1), pp.145-167

Jan Marcin Węsławski1, Eugeniusz Andrulewicz2, Lech Kotwicki1, Emil Kuzebski2, Andrzej Lewandowski3, Tomasz Linkowski2, Stanisław R. Massel1, Stanisław Musielak4, Krystyna Olańczuk-Neyman5, Janusz Pempkowiak1, Halina Piekarek-Jankowska6, Teresa Radziejewska4, Grzegorz Różyński7, Iwona Sagan8, Krzysztof E. Skóra6, Kazimierz Szefler9, Jacek Urbański6, Zbigniew Witek10, Maciej Wołowicz6, Joanna Zachowicz11, Tomasz Zarzycki6
1 Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: weslaw@iopan.gda.pl
2 Sea Fisheries Institute,
Kołłątaja 1, PL-81-332 Gdynia, Poland
3 Geomor-NIVA,
Kościerska 5, PL-80-328 Gdańsk, Poland
4 University of Szczecin,
Felczaka 3c, PL-71-412 Szczecin, Poland
5 Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdańsk University of Technology,
Narutowicza 11/12, PL-80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
6 Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland
7 Institute of Hydroengineering,
Kościerska 7, PL-80-953 Gdańsk, Poland
8 Institute of Geography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland
9 Maritime Institute,
Długi Targ 41/43, PL-80-830 Gdańsk, Poland
10 Pomeranian Pedagogical Academy,
Arciszewskiego 22a, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland
11 Polish Geological Institute,
Kościerska 7, PL-80-953 Gdańsk, Poland

Keywords: Baltic, environmental economics, ecosystem goods and services, renewable resources

Received 14 September 2005, revised 8 February 2006, accepted 16 February 2006.

Support for the present work was obtained from the following international projects: MARBEF Network of Excellence, COSA (Coastal Sands as biocatalytic filters), and ELME (European Life Styles and the Marine Environment) - of the 5th and 6th FP of EU.
This paper summarises current knowledge of goods and services in the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. It reviews specific properties of the Baltic that could be used for economic valuation. Goods and services range from the familiar resources of fish and minerals, which were valued with the Productivity Method, to less obvious services provided by the ecosystem such as biofiltration in coastal sands, valued with either the Replacement Cost or Damage Cost Avoided methods. Disservices to the marine ecosystem are also considered, e.g. erosion and coastal flooding, including the costs of planned mitigating measures. This paper emphasises the importance of using valuation methods to help make better-educated decisions for the sustainability of the Baltic Sea.
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Mechanisms of sound seattering by biological targets and their aggregates
Oceanologia 2006, 48(1), 169-172

Natalia Gorska
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: gorska@iopan.gda.pl

Post-doctoral (habilitation) thesis in underwater acoustics.
Natalia Gorska's thesis is based on a set of 9 papers published in scientific journals (Gorska & Klusek 1998, Gorska 2000, Gorska & Chu 2001a, b, Gorska & Ona 2003a, b) and conference proceedings (Gorska & Klusek 1994, Gorska 1999, Gorska & Chu 2000), which broadly summarise her integrated research achievements in underwater acoustics from 1994 to 2003. She is the sole author of two of the articles (Gorska 1999, 2000), and is the first co-author, taking a leading part, in the others (Gorska & Klusek 1994, 1998, Gorska & Chu 2000, Gorska & Chu 200la, b, Gorska & Ona 2003a, b).
    Her research objective was to work out the theoretical background to certain problems of sound scattering by biological targets - single individuals and aggregated layers of fish and zooplankton - in relation to environmental conditions in the sea. In the study she focused on acoustical extinction and backscattering, including the phenomenon of echo interference. In conjunction wit h the co-authors of papers Gorska & Ona 2003a, b, Gorska & Chu 2001a, b and Gorska & Chu 2000, she was able to apply and verify her theoretical results empirically.

full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 65 KB