11.2 REFERENCES - LITERATURE - Kongsfjorden & Hornsund

Primary Literature

Aguilera, J., Karsten, U., Lippert, H., Vögele, B., Philipp, E., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C. 1999: Effects of solar radiation on growth, photosynthesis and respiration of marine macroalgae from the Arctic. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 191, 109-119.

Aguilera, J., Dummermuth, A., Karsten, U., Schriek, R. & Wiencke, C. 2002: Enzymatic defences against photooxidative stress indicated by ultraviolet radiation in Arctic marine macroalgae. Polar Biol. 25, 432-441.

Aguilera, J., Bischof, K., Karsten, U., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C. 2002: Seasonal variation in echophysical patterns in macroalgae from an Arctic fjord. II. Pigment accumulation and biochemical defence systems against high light stress. Mar. Biol. 140, 1087-1095.

Aksnes, D. L., Aure, J., Kaarstvedt, S., Magnusen, R. & Richard, J. 1989: Significance of advection for the carrying capacities of fjord populations. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 50, 263-274.

S. Aliani, G. Bartholini, F. Degl'innocenti, R. Delfanti, C. Galli, E. Lazzoni, R. Lorenzelli, A. Malaguti, R. Meloni, C. Papucci, S. Salvi, A. Zaborska. 2004. Multidisciplinary investigations in the marine environment of the inner Kongsfiord, Svalbard Islands (september 2000 and 2001). Chemistry and Ecology, Volume 20, Supplement 1, 19-28

Andersen, M., Hjelset, A. M., Gjertz, I., Lydersen, C. & Gulliksen, B. 1999: Growth, age at sexual maturity and condition in bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) from Svalbard, Norway. Polar Biol. 21, 179-185.

Andersson, Ö., Linder, C.-E., Olsson, M., Reutergårdh, L., Uvemo, U.-B. and Wideqvist, U. 1988. Spatial differences and temporal trends of organochlorine compounds in biota from the northwestern hemisphere. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17: 755-765.

Arnosti, C., Jørgensen, B. B., Sagemann, J. & Thamdrup, B. 1998: Temperature dependence of microbial degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: Polysaccharide hydrolysis, oxygen consumption, and sulfate reduction. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 165, 59-70.

Barnes DKA, Kuklinski P. 2003. High polar spatial competition: extreme hierarchies at extreme latitude. Marine Ecology Progress Series 259, 17-28

Barnes DKA, Kuklinski P. 2004, Scale-dependent variation in competitive ability among encrusting Arctic species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 275: 21-31.

Barnes DKA, Kuklinski P. 2004, Variability of competition at 101, 103, 105 and 106m scales: encrusting community patterns. Marine Biology, 145: 361-372.

Barnes DKA, Kuklinski P. 2005. Bipolar patterns of intraspecific competition in bryozoans. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 285, pp. 75-87

Barnes DKA, Kuklinski P. 2005. Low colonisation on artificial substrata in arctic. Spitsbergen. Polar Biology, vol. 29 (1), pp. 65-69

Kuklinski P. 2004, Scale-dependent variation in competitive ability among encrusting Arctic species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 275: 21-31.

Bang, K., Jenssen, B.M., Lydersen, C. & Skaare, J.U. 2001: Organochlorines burdens in blood of ringed and bearded seals from north-western Svalbard. Chemosphere 44, 193-203.

Beine, H.J., Dahlback, A. and Ørbæk, J.B., 1999: Measurements of J(NO2) at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 104 , No. D13, 16009-16019.

Beine, H. J., Argentini, S., Maurizi, A., Mastrantonio, G. and Viola, A. (2000): The local wind field at Ny-Alesund and the Zeppelin mountain at Svalbard. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. (in press)

Bennett, M.R., Hambrey, M.J., Huddart, D., Glasser, N.F. & Crawford, K. 1999: The landform and sediment assemblage produced by a tidewater glacier surge in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Quarter. Sci. Rev. 18, 1213-1246.

Beszczynska-Mö ller A., Weslawski J.M., Walczowski W., Zajaczkowski M. 1997: Estimationn of glacial meltwater discharge into Svalbard coastal water Oceanologia 39(3), 1997, 289-297.

Bignert, A., Olsson, M., Bergqvist, P.-A., Bergek, S., Rappe, C., de Wit, C. and Jansson, B. 1989. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzo-furans (PCDF) in seal blubber. Chemosphere 19: 551-556.

Bischof, K., Hanelt, D., Tüg, H., Karsten, U., Brouwer, P. E. M. & Wiencke, C. 1998: Acclimation of brown algal photosynthesis to ultraviolet radiation in Arctic coastal waters, Spitsbergen (Norway). Polar Biol. 20, 388-395.

Bischof, K., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C. 1999: Acclimation of maximal quantum yield of photosynthesis in the brown alga Alaria esculenta under high light and UV radiation. Plant Biol. 1, 435-444.

Bischof, K., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C. 2000a: UV-effects on photosynthesis and related enzyme reactions of marine macroalgae. Planta 211, 555-562.

Bischof, K., Kräbs, G., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C. 2000b: Photosynthetic characteristics and mycosporine-like amino acids under UV radiation: a competitive advantage of Mastocarpus stellatus over Chondrus crispus at the Helgoland shoreline? Helgol. Mar. Res. 54, 47-52.

Bischof, K., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C. 2001: UV-radiation and Arctic marine macroalgae. In D. Hessen (ed.): UV-radiation and arctic ecosystems. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer.

Bischof, K., Hanelt, D., Aguilera, J., Karsten, U., Vogele, B., Sawall, T. & Wiencke, C. 2002: Seasonal variation in ecophysical patterns in macroalgae from an Arctic fjord. I. Sensitivity of photosynthesis to ultraviolet radiation. Mar. Biol. 140, 1097-1106.

Bjorn, T.H. & Erikstad, K.E. 1994: Patterns of infraspecific nest parasitism in the high Arctic common eider (Somateria-Mollissima-Borealis). Canadian Journal of zoology 72, 1027-1034.

Blachowiak-Samolyk K, Kwasniewski S, Richardson K, Dmoch K, Hansen E, Hop H, Falk-Petersen S, Thybo Mouritsen L. 2006. Arctic zooplankton do not perform diel vertical migration (DVM) during periods of midnight sun. MEPS, 308, pp. 101-116

Blackburn, T. H. , Hall, P. O. J., Hulth, S. & Landén, A. 1996: Organic-N loss by efflux and burial associated with a low efflux of inorganic N and with nitrate assimilation in Arctic sediments. Svalbard (Norway). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 141, 283-293.

Brekke, B. & Gabrielsen, G. W. 1994: Assimilation efficiency of adult kittiwakes and Brünnich's Guillemots fed capelin and arctic cod. Polar Biol. 14, 279-284.

Brouwer, P. E. M., Bischof, K., Hanelt, D. & Kromkamp, J. 2000: Photosynthesis of two Arctic macroalgae under different ambient radiation levels and their sensitivity to enhanced UV radiation. Polar Biol. 23, 257-264.

Bustnes, J. O. & Lønne, O. J. 1995: Sea ducks as predators on sea urchins in a northern kelp forest. In H. R. Skjoldal et al. (eds.): Ecology of fjords and coastal waters. Pp. 599-608. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Conover, R. J. 1988: Comparative life histories in the genera Calanus and Neocalanus in high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Hydrobiologia 167/168, 127-142.

Cruwyz, E., Robinson, K. and Davis, N. R. 1994. Microprobe analysis of trace metals in seal teeth from Svalbard, Greenland, and South Georgia. Polar Rec. 30: 49-52.

Daelemans, F.F., Mehlum, F. & Schepens, P.J.C. 1992: Polychlorinated-biphenyls in 2 species of Arctic seabirds from the Svalbard area. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 48, 828-834.

Daelemans, F. F., Mehlum, F., Lydersen, C. & Schepens, P. J. C. 1993: Mono-ortho and non-ortho substituted PCBs in Arctic ringed seal (Phoca hispida) from the Svalbard area: analysis and determination of their toxic threat. Chemosphere 27: 429-437.

Dahl, T. M., Lydersen, C., Kovacs, K. M., Falk-Petersen, S., Sargent, J., Gjertz, I. & Gulliksen, B. 2000: Fatty acid composition of the blubber in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Polar Biol. 23, 401-409.

Dahlback, A., Beine, H. and Ørbæk, J.B., 1998: Actinic fluxes and photodissociation rates derived from irradiance measurements with multi-channel filter instruments., Proc. of the European Conference on Atmospheric UV-Radiation (ECUV), Helsinki, Finland, June 1998, J. Geophys. Res.,

Dietz, R., Ansen, C. T., Have, P. and Heide-Jørgensen, M.-P. 1989. Clue to seal epizootic? Nature 338: 627.

Dietz, R., Paludan-Müller, P., Agger, C. T., and Nielsen, C. O. 1998. Cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland and Svalbard. Pp. 242-273 In: Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Lydersen, C. (eds.) Ringed seals in the north Atlantic. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1.

Digby, P. S. B. 1961: The vertical distribution and movements of marine plankton under midnight-sun conditions in Spitsbergen. J. Anim. Ecol. 30, 9-25.

Dowdeswell, J.A. & Forsberg, C.F. 1992: The size and frequency of icebergs and bergy bits derived from tidewater glaciers in Kongsfjorden, northwest Spitsbergen. Polar Res. 11, 81-91.

Drengstig, A., Fevolden, S. E., Garland, P. E. & Aschan M. M. 2000: Population structure of the deep-sea shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in the north-east Atlantic based on allozyme variation. Aquatic Living Resources 13, 121-128.

Eilertsen, H. C., Taasen, J. P. & Weslawski J. M. 1989a: Phytoplankton studies in the fjords of West Spitsbergen: physical environment and production in spring and summer. J. Plankt. Res. 11, 1245-1260.

Ellis, H. I. & Gabrielsen, G. W. 2001: Energetics of free-ranging seabirds. In E. A. Schreiber & J. Burger (eds.): Biology of marine birds. Pp. 359-407. CRC Marine Biology Series. CRC Press.

Ellis-Evans, J.C., Galchenko, V., Laybourn-Parry, J., Mylnikov, A.P. & Petz, W. 2001: Environmental charachteristics and microbial plankton activity of freshwater environments at Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen. Archiv fue hydrobiologie 152, 609-632.

Falk-Petersen, I. B., Frivoll, V., Gulliksen, B., Haug, T. & Vader, W. 1988: Age/size relation and food of two snailfishes, Liparis gibbus and Careproctus reinhardii (Teleostei, Liparidae) from Spitsbergen Coastal Waters. Polar Biol. 8, 353-358.

Falk, K., Pedersen, C. E. & Kampp, K. 2000: Measurements of diving depth in dovekies (Alle alle). Auk 115, 522-525.

Falk-Petersen, S., Hagen, W., Kattner, G., Clarke, A., & Sargent J.R. 2000: Lipids, trophic relationships and biodiversity in Arctic and Antarctic Krill. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57 (3):178-191.

Falk-Petersen, S., Hop, H., Budgell, W. P., Hegseth, E. N., Korsnes R., Løyning T. B., Ørbæk J.B., Kawamura, T. and Shirasawa K. 2000a: Physical and ecological processes in the Marginal Ice Zone of the northern Barents Sea during the summer melt periods. Journal of Marine Systems (in press)

Falk-Petersen, S., Sargent, J. R., Kwasniewski, S., Gulliksen, B. & Millar R-M. 2001: Lipids and fatty acids in Clione limacina and Limacina helicina in Svalbard waters and the Arctic Ocean: Trophic Implications. Polar Biol. 24, 163-170.

Falk-Petersen S, Dahl TM, ScottCL, Sargent JR, Gulliksen B, Kwasniewski S, Hop H, Millar RM. 2002. Lipid biomarkers and trophic linkages between ctenophores and copepods in Svalbard waters. Marine Ecology Progres Ser.227; 187-194

Fant, M.L., Nyman, M., Helle, E. & Rudback, E. 2001: Mercury, cadmium and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hirspida) from the Baltic Sea and from Svalbard. Environ. Poll. 111, 493-501.

Fetzer, I., Lonne, O.J. & Pearson, T. 2002: The distribution of juvenile benthic invertebrates in an Arctic glacial fjord. Polar Biol. 25, 303-315.

Freese, L., Auster, P. J., Heifetz, J. & Wing, B. L. 1999: Effects of trawling on seafloor habitat and associated invertebrate taxa in the Gulf of Alaska. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 182, 119-126.

Gabrielsen, G.W., Mehlum, F. & Nagy, K.A. 1987: Daily energy-expenditure and energy-utilization of free-ranging black-legged kittiwakes. Condor 89, 126-132.

Gabrielsen, G.W., Mehlum, F. & Karlsen, H.E. 1988: Thermoregulation in 4 species of Arctic seabirds. Environ. Physiol. 157, 703-708.

Gabrielsen, G.W., Taylor, J.R.E., Konarzewski, M. & Mehlum, F. 1991: Field and laboratory metabolism and thermoregulation in dovekies (Alle-Alle). Auk 108, 71-78.

Gabrielsen, G. W. 1994: Energy expenditure in arctic seabirds. Dr. Philos. thesis, University of Tromsø, Norway.

Gabrielsen, G. W., Klaassen, M. & Mehlum, F. 1992: Energetics of Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla chicks. Ardea 80, 29-40.

Gerland, S., Winther, J. -G., Ørbæk, J. B. & Ivanov, B. V. 1999: Physical properties, spectral reflectance and thickness development of first year fast ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Res. 18, 275-282.

Gerland, S., Winther, J.-G., Ørbæk, J.B., Liston, G.E., Øritsland, N.A., Blanco, A., & Ivanov, B., 1999: Physical and optical properties of snow covering Arctic tundra on Svalbard. Hydrological Processes, 13, 2331-2343.

Gerland, S., Liston, G.E., Winther, J.-G., Ørbæk, J.B. & Ivanov, B. 2000: Attenuation of solar radiation in Arctic snow: field observations and modelling. Annals of Glaciology 31, 364-368.

Gjertz, I. & Lydersen, C. 1986: The ringed seal (Phoca hispida) spring diet in northwestern Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Polar Res. 4, 53-56.

Gjertz, I. & Børseth, A. 1992: Pupping in the most northerly harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Mar. Mamm. Sci. 8, 103-109.

Gjertz, I. & Wiig, Ø. 1994a: Distribution and catch of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) at Svalbard. Bioscience 39, 93-97.

Gjertz, I. & Wiig, Ø. 1994b: Past and present distribution of walruses in Svalbard. Arctic 47, 34-42.

Gjertz, I. & Wiig, Ø. 1995: The number of walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) in Svalbard in summer. Polar Biol. 15, 527-530.

Gjertz, I., Kovacs, K. M., Lydersen, C. & Wiig, Ø. 2000a: Movements and diving of adult ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Svalbard. Polar Biol. 23, 651-656.

Gjertz, I., Kovacs, K. M., Lydersen, C. & Wiig, Ø. 2000b: Movements and diving of bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) mothers and pups during lactation and post-weaning. Polar Biol. 23, 559-566.

Gjertz, I., Lydersen, C. & Wiig, O. 2001: Distribution and diving of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in Svalbard. Polar Biol. 24, 209-214.

Glasser, N.F. & Hambrey, M.J. 2001: Tidewater glacier beds: Insights from iceberg debris in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Journ. Glaciol. 47,295-302.

Glud, R. N., Holby, O., Hoffmann, F. & Canfield, D. E. 1998: Benthic mineralization and exchange in Arctic sediments, Svalbard (Norway). Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 173, 237-251.

Gontar, V.I., Hop, H. & Voronkov, A. Yu. 2001: Diversity and distribution of Bryozoa in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Pol. Polar Res. 22, 187-204.

Graeve, M., Kattner, G., Wiencke, C. & Karsten, U. 2002: Fatty acid composition of Arctic and Antarctic macroalgae: Indicator of phylogenetic and trophic relationships. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 231, 67-74.

Grossi, S. M., Kottmeier, S. T., Moe, R. L., Taylor, G. T. & Sullivan, C. W. 1987: Sea ice communities. VI. Growth and primary production in bottom ice under graded snow cover. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 35, 153-164.

Hagen, J.O. & Lefauconnier, B. 1995: Reconstructed runoff from the high Arctic Basin Bayelva based on mass-balance measurements. Nordic Hydrology 26, 285-296.

Halldal, P. & Halldal, K. 1973: Phytoplankton, chlorophyll, and submarine light conditions in Kings Bay, Spitsbergen, July 1971. Norw. J. Bot. 20, 99-108.

Hammill, M. O., Lydersen, C., Ryg, M. & Smith, T. G. 1991: Lactation in the ringed seal (Phoca hispida). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 2471-2476.

Hammill, M. O., Kovacs, K. M. & Lydersen, C. 1994: Local movements by nursing bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) pups in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Biol. 14, 569-570.

Hanelt, D., Wiencke, C. & Nultsch, W. 1997: Influence of UV radiation on photosynthesis of Arctic macroalgae in the field. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 38, 40-47.

Hanelt, D. 1998: Capability of dynamic photoinhibitation in Arctic macroalgae is related to their depth distribution. Mar. Biol. 131, 361-369.

Hanelt, D., Tug, H., Bischof, K., Gross, C., Lippert, H., Sawall, T. & Wiencke, C. 2001: Light regime in an Arctic fjord: A study related to stratospheric ozone depletion as a basis for determination of UV effects on algal growth. Mar. Biol. 138, 649-658.

Hansen, H. Ø. & Aschan, M. 2001: Growth, size- and age-at-maturity of shrimp, Pandalus borealis, at Svalbard related to environmental parameters. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci. 27, 1-10.

Hardy, M. H., Roff, E., Smith, T. G. and Ryg, M. 1991. Facial skin glands of ringed and grey seals, and their possible function as odoriferous organs. Can. J. Zool. 69: 189-200.

Hasle, G. R. & Heimdal, B. R. 1998: The net phytoplankton in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, July 1988, with general remarks on species composition of arctic phytoplankton. Polar Res. 17, 31-52.

Haug, T. & Gulliksen, B. 1982: Size, age, occurrence, growth, and food of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) in coastal waters of western Spitsbergen. Sarsia 68, 293-297.

Henriksen, E., Gabrielsen, G. W. & Skaare, J. U. 1998: Validation of use of blood samples to assess tissue concentrations of organochlorines in Glaucous Gulls, Larus hyperboreus. Chemosphere 37, 2627-2643.

Herz, K. & Andreas, G. 1966: Investigations on the morphology of the periglacial active layer in the Kongsfjord region (Western Spitsbergen). Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 110, 190-198.

Herz, K. & Andreas, G. 1966: Investigations concerning the ecology of the periglacial active layer in the region of Kongsfjord (Western Spitsbergen). Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 110, 260-272.

Hjelset, A. M., Andersen, M., Gjertz, I., Lydersen, C. & Gulliksen, B. 1999: Feeding habits of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) from the Svalbard area, Norway. Polar Biol. 21, 186-193.

Holte, B., Dahle, S., Gulliksen, B. & Naes, K. 1996: Some macrofaunal effects of local pollution and glacier-induced sedimentation, with indicative chemical analyses, in the sediments of two Arctic fjords. Polar Biol. 16, 549-557.

Holte, B. & Gulliksen, B. 1998: Common macrofaunal dominant species in the sediments of some north Norwegian and Svalbard glacial fjords. Polar Biol. 19, 375-382.

Hop H., Falk-Petersen S., Svendsen H., Kwasniewski S., Pavlov V., Pavlova O., Soreide J. 2006. Physical and biological characteristics of the pelagic system, across Fram Strait to Kongsfjorden. Progress In Oceanography. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2006.09.007.

Hop, H., Pearson, T., Hegseth, E.N., Kovacs, K.M., Wiencke, C., Kwasniewski, S., Eiane, K., Mehlum, F., Gulliksen, B., Wlodarska-Kowalezuk, M., Lydersen, C., Weslawski, J.M., Cochrane, S., Gabrielsen, G.W., Leakey, R.J.G., Lonne, O.J., Zajaczkowski, M., Falk-Petersen, S., Kendall, M., Wangberg, S.A., Bischof, K., Voronkov, A.Y., Kovaltchouk, N.A., Wiktor, J., Poltermann, M., diPrisco, G. & Papucci, C. 2002: The marine ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Res. 21, 167-208.

Houmark-Nielsen, M. & Funder, S. 1999: Pleistocene stratigraphy of Kongsfjordhallet, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Polar. Res. 18, 39-49.

Jankowska K, Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M, Wieczorek P. 2005. Abundance and biomass of bacteria in two Arctic glacial fjords. Polish Polar Research, 26 (1), pp. 77-84

Jansson, B., Andersson, R., Asplund, L., Litzen, K., Nylund, K. Sellström, U., Uvemo, U.-B., Wahlberg, C., Wideqvist, U., Odsjö, T. & Olsson, M. 1993: Chlorinated and brominated persistent organic compounds in biological samples from the environment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12: 1163-1174.

Jørgensen, L. L., Gulliksen, B. 2001: Rocky bottom fauna in arctic Kongfjord (Svalbard) studied by means of suction sampling and photography. Polar Biol. 24, 113-121.

Jørgensen, C., Lydersen, C., Brix, O. & Kovacs, K.M. 2001: Diving development in nursing harbour seal pups. Journal of experimental biology 204, 3993-4004.

Kaczmarek H, Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M, Legezynska J, Zajaczkowski M. 2005. Shallow sublittoral macrozoobenthos in Kongsfjord, West Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Polish Polar Research, 26 (2), pp. 137-155

Käkelä, R., Ackman, R. G. and Hyvärinen, H. 1995. Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blubber of ringed seals (Phoca hispida sp.) from Lake Saimaa, Lake Ladoga, the Baltic Sea, and Spitsbergen. Lipids 30: 725-731.

Käkelä, R. and Hyvärinen, H. 1996. Site-specific fatty acid composition in adipose tissues of several northern aquatic and terrestrial mammals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol 115B: 501-514.

Käkelä, R., Hyvärinen, H., and Käkelä, A. 1997. Vitamins A1 (Retinol), A2 (3,4-Didehydroretinol) and E (alpha-Tocopherol) in liver and blubber of lacustrine and marine ringed seals (Phoca hispida sp.). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 116B: 27-33.

Käkelä, R. and Hyvärinen, H. 1998. Composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver of freshwater and marine ringed seals (Phoca hispida spp.) differs largely due to the diets of the seals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 120B: 231-237.

Kannan, K., Koistinen, J., Beckmen, K., Evans, T., Gorzelany, J.F., Hansen, K.J., Jones, P.D., Helle, E., Nyman, M. & Giesy, J.P. 2001: Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals. Environ. Sci. Technol.35, 1593-1598.

Karnovsky N, Kwasniewski S, Weslawski JM, Walkusz W, Beszczynska-Moller A. 2003. Foraging behaviour of little auks in a heterogenous environment. Marine Ecology Progress Ser. 253; 289-303

Karsten, U., Sawall, T., Hanelt, D., Bischof, K., Figueroa, F. L., Flores-Moya, A. & Wiencke, C. 1998: An inventory of UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids in macroalgae from polar to warm-temperate regions. Bot. Mar. 41, 443-453.

Karsten, U., Bischof, K., Hanelt, D., Tüg, H. & Wiencke, C. 1999: The effect of UV radiation on photosynthesis and UV-absorbing substances in the endemic Arctic macroalga Develaraea ramentacea (Rhodophyta). Physiol. Plant. 105, 58-66.

Karsten, U. & Wiencke, C. 1999: Factors controlling the formation of UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids in the marine red alga Palmaria palmata from Spitsbergen (Norway). J. Plant Physiol. 155, 407-415.

Karsten, U., Bischof, K. & Wiencke, C. 2001. Photosynthetic performance of Arctic macroalgae after transplantation from deep to shallow waters followed by exposure to natural solar radiation. Oecologia 127, 11-20.

Keck, A., Wiktor, J., Hapter, R. & Nilsen, R. 1999: Phytoplankton assemblages related to physical gradients in an Arctic, glacier-fed fjord in summer. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56, 203-214.

Keck, A., 1999. West Spitzbergen fjords (Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic): Physical setting and sedimentation. In Heiskanen, A.S., Lundsgaard, C., Reigstad, M., Olli, K. & Floderus, S. (Eds.) Sedimentation and recycling in aquatic ecosystems - the impact of pelagic processes and planktonic food web structure. The Finnish Environment 263, 58-68.

Kendall, M. A. 1996: Are Arctic soft sediment macrobenthic communities impoverished? Polar Biol.16, 393-399.

Kendall, M. A. & Aschan, M. 1993: Latitudinal gradients in the structure of macrobenthic communities - a comparison of Arctic, temperate and tropical sites. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 172, 157-169.

Kendall MA, Widdicombe S., Weslawski JM. 2003. A multiscale study of the biodiversity of thebenthic infauna of the high latitude Kongsfjord, Svalbard. Polar Biology, 26, 6, 383-388

Kedra M. 2004, An excersise in comparing the pelagic and benthic macrofauna species diversity usining the Taonomic distinctness index. MARBEF, Newsletter 18-19

Kern, J. C. & Carey, G. A. Jr. 1983: The faunal assemblage inhabiting seasonal sea ice in the nearshore Arctic Ocean with emphasis on copepods. Marine Ecology Progress Series 10, 159-167.

Kershaw, P. J., McCubbin, D. & Leonard, K. S. 1999: Continuing contamination of north Atlantic and Arctic waters by Sellafield radionuclides. Sci. Total Environ. 238, 119-132.

Klaassen, M., Bech, C., Masman, D. & Slagsvold, G. 1989: Growth and energetics of Arctic Tern chicks (Sterna paradisaea). Auk 106, 240-248.

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Weslawski JM, Legezynska J. 2002. Chances for Arctic survival; Greely’s Expedition revisited. Arctic 55,4;380-386

Weslawski JM, Legezynska J. 2002. Life cycles of some arctic amphipods. Polish Polar Research 23 (3-4) 253-264

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Weslawski, J.M., Wiktor, J., Zajaczkowski, M. & Swerpel, S. 1993: Intertidal zone of Svalbard .1. macroorganism distribution and biomass. Polar Biol. 13, 73-79.

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Keck, A. 1999: West Spitsbergen fjords (Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic): Physical setting and sedimentation. In A. S. Heiskanen et al. (eds.): Sedimentation and recycling in aquatic ecosystems - the impact of pelagic processes and planktonic food web structure. The Finnish Environment 263, 58-68.

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