Oceanologia No. 58 (4) / 16


Original research article

Short communications

Original research article

Satellite observations of seasonal and regional variability of particulate organic carbon concentration in the Barents Sea
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 249-263

Małgorzata Stramska1,2,*, Jagoda Białogrodzka2
1Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: mstramska@wp.pl
*corresponding author
2Department of Earth Sciences, Szczecin University, Szczecin, Poland

keywords: Barents Sea; Satellite remote sensing; Ocean color; Particulate organic carbon

Received 20 November 2015, Accepted 13 April 2016, Available online 4 May 2016


The Nordic and Barents Seas are of special interest for research on climate change, since they are located on the main pathway of the heat transported from low to high latitudes. The Barents Sea is characterized by supreme phytoplankton blooms and large amount of carbon is sequestered here due to biological processes. It is important to monitor the biological variability in this region in order to derive in depth understanding whether the size of carbon reservoirs and fluxes may vary as a result of climate change. In this paper we analyze the 17 years (1998–2014) of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration derived from remotely sensed ocean color. POC concentrations in the Barents Sea are among the highest observed in the global ocean with monthly mean concentrations in May exceeding 300 mg m−3. The seasonal amplitude of POC concentration in this region is larger when compared to other regions in the global ocean. Our results indicate that the seasonal increase in POC concentration is observed earlier in the year and higher concentrations are reached in the southeastern part of the Barents Sea in comparison to the southwestern part. Satellite data indicate that POC concentrations in the southern part of the Barents Sea tend to decrease in recent years, but longer time series of data are needed to confirm this observation.
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Detecting imprints of atmospheric waves in the Bering Sea with MODIS data
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 264-271

Marina Evdoshenko
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia;
e-mail: maarsio@bk.ru

keywords: MODIS; Remote sensing; Ocean optics; Water leaving radiance

Received 11 November 2015, Accepted 13 April 2016, Available online 29 April 2016


Satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data of water leaving radiance of 859 nm with a spatial resolution of 250 m were used to investigate the impact of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), which manifested as stripes in clouds and on the sea surface. On the basis of an evaluation of the characteristics of AGWs and sea depth, it was shown that the surface stripes, or surface waves (SWs) were imprints of AGWs. Crests of SWs were like prolongations of cloud stripes on the combined radiance images testifying that SWs were shifted by minus a quarter of the period relative to AGWs.
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The effect of temperature and nitrogen deprivation on cell morphology and physiology of Symbiodinium
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 272-278

Buntora Pasaribu3, Yu-Si Li1, I-Ping Lin5,7, Kwee Siong Tew1,2, Jason T.C. Tzen3, Yue Ken Liao6, Chii-Shiarng Chen1,2,4, Pei-Luen Jiang1,2,*
1Graduate Institute of Marine Biotechnology, National Dong-Hwa University, Pingtung, Taiwan;
e-mail: villy@nmmba.gov.tw
2Taiwan Coral Research Center, National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan
3Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
4Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
5Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, Yunlin, Taiwan
6Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan
7Challenge Bioproducts Co., Ltd., Yunlin, Taiwan;
*corresponding author

keywords: Symbiodinium; Temperature; Nitrogen deprivation

Received 4 June 2015, Accepted 22 April 2016, Available online 10 May 2016


Nutrients and temperature are the major elements in maintaining stable endosymbiotic relationships. The mechanisms and response of cultured Symbiodinium cells in the absence of nitrogen, and at various temperatures are still unclear. The present study investigated the influence of different temperatures and nitrogen-deprivation on free-living Symbiodinium cultures. The physiological responses of free-living Symbiodinium cells cultured at different temperatures during nitrogen deprivation under a 12:12 h light:dark were measured. Symbiodinium cell growth was significantly lower in response to lower temperatures. Transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation under different temperatures. The results of this study will increase our understanding of adaptive responses occurring in Symbiodinium under environmental stress.
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Narrowband shortwave minima in spectra of backscattered light from the sea obtained from ocean color scanners as a remote indication of algal blooms
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 279-291

G.S. Karabashev*, M.A. Evdoshenko
Laboratory of Ocean Optics, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, Moscow, Russia;
e-mail: genkar@mail.ru
*corresponding author

keywords: Algae; Bloom; Pigments; Reflectance spectrum; MODIS; Baltic Sea

Received 27 December 2015, Accepted 2 May 2016, Available online 13 May 2016


We propose a new approach to indication of algal blooms. It stems from analysis of the multispectral satellite reflectance Rrs of areas where blooms were documented during recent decades. We found that spectra of algal blooms exhibit minima at wavelengths of channels of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) λ = 443 and λ = 488 nm (Baltic, Black, and Caspian seas), λ = 443 nm (Southwest Tropical Pacific (SWTP)), and λ = 443 nm and λ = 469 nm (Patagonian Continental Shelf (PCS)), attributable to absorption bands of chlorophyll a and accessory pigments. We quantified the minima using indices D1 = Rrs(443) − Rrs(412) and D2 = Rrs(488) − Rrs(469) and proved their diagnostic potential by comparing their distributions to that of Rrs(555). Linear dependence of D1 upon chlorophyll a was found from MODIS data for the bloom of Nodularia spumigena. Time dependences of D1 and D2 point to the latter as a probable remote forerunner of cyanobacterial blooms. In the PCS, D1 and D2 proved to be too simplistic owing to diversity of spectral shapes at λ < 550 nm. Cluster analysis revealed close linkage of the latter and local oceanological conditions. Our findings bear witness to the diagnostic potential of the indices by virtue of their direct relation to pigment absorption and because the broadband background reflectance changes reduce when calculating the indices as a difference of spectrally close reflectances. Further studies are needed to convert the indices to band-difference algorithms for retrieving the bio-optical characteristics of algal blooms.
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Size-selective microzooplankton grazing on the phytoplankton in the Curonian Lagoon (SE Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 292-301

Evelina Grinienė1,2,*, , Sigitas Šulčius3, Harri Kuosa4
1Open Access Centre for Marine Research, Klaipėda University, Klaipėda, Lithuania;
e-mail: evelina.griniene@apc.ku.lt
2Marine Science and Technology Centre, Klaipėda University, Klaipėda, Lithuania
3Laboratory of Algology and Microbial Ecology, Nature Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania
4Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland
*corresponding author

keywords: Ciliates; Pico- and nanophytoplankton; Dilution experiments; Phytoplankton pigments; Predator–prey interactions

Received 18 August 2015, Accepted 5 May 2016, Available online 19 May 2016


Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates at two sites: freshwater (Nida) and brackish water (Smiltyne) in the Curonian Lagoon (SE Baltic Sea). Using the size-fractionation approach and dilution experiments, we found that the microzooplankton community was able to remove up to 78% of nanophytoplankton (2–20 μm) standing stock and 130% of the total daily primary production in the brackish waters of the lagoon, and up to 83% of standing stock and 76% of the primary production of picophytoplankton (0.2–2 μm) in the freshwater part. The observed differences were attributed to the changes in ciliate community size and trophic structure, with larger nano-filterers (30–60 μm) dominating the brackish water assemblages and pico-nano filterers (<20 μm and 20–30 μm) prevailing in the freshwater part of the lagoon.
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Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 302-316

Mia Bužančić*, Živana Ninčević Gladan, Ivona Marasović, Grozdan Kušpilić, Branka Grbec
Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, Croatia;
e-mail: buzancic@izor.hr
*corresponding author

keywords: Phytoplankton; Chlorophyll a; Biodiversity; The eastern Adriatic coast

Received 28 March 2015, Accepted 9 April 2016, Available online 28 April 2016


This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.
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Performance of operational satellite bio-optical algorithms in different water types in southeastern Arabian Sea
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 317-326

P. Minu1, Aneesh A. Lotliker2, S.S. Shaju1, P. Muhamed Ashraf1,*, T. Srinivasa Kumar2, , B. Meenakumari3
1 ICAR – Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kochi, India;
e-mail: ashrafp2008@gmail.com
*corresponding author
2Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad, India
3Indian Council for Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India

keywords: Remote sensing reflectance; Algorithms; Chlorophyll-a; CDOM; Arabian Sea; SATCORE

Received 31 October 2015, Accepted 30 May 2016, Available online 16 June 2016


The in situ remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and optically active substances (OAS) measured using hyperspectral radiometer, were used for optical classification of coastal waters in the southeastern Arabian Sea. The spectral Rrs showed three distinct water types, that were associated with the variability in OAS such as chlorophyll-a (chl-a), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and volume scattering function at 650 nm (β650). The water types were classified as Type-I, Type-II and Type-III respectively for the three Rrs spectra. The Type-I waters showed the peak Rrs in the blue band (470 nm), whereas in the case of Type-II and III waters the peak Rrs was at 560 and 570 nm respectively. The shifting of the peak Rrs at the longer wavelength was due to an increase in concentration of OAS. Further, we evaluated six bio-optical algorithms (OC3C, OC4O, OC4, OC4E, OC3M and OC4O2) used operationally to retrieve chl-a from Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS), Ocean Colour Temperature Scanner (OCTS), Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM2). For chl-a concentration greater than 1.0 mg m−3, algorithms based on the reference band ratios 488/510/520 nm to 547/550/555/560/565 nm have to be considered. The assessment of algorithms showed better performance of OC3M and OC4. All the algorithms exhibited better performance in Type-I waters. However, the performance was poor in Type-II and Type-III waters which could be attributed to the significant co-variance of chl-a with CDOM.
full, complete article - PDF (856 K)

UV filters are an environmental threat in the Gulf of Mexico: a case study of Texas coastal zones
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 327-335

Hamidreza Sharifan1,*, David Klein2, Audra N. Morse1
1Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, United States;
e-mail: hamidreza.sharifan@ttu.edu, hsharifan@gmail.com
*corresponding author
2Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, United States

keywords: Coastal zones; UV filters; Water pollution; Texas; Gulf of Mexico; Estuaries

Received 15 February 2016, Accepted 15 July 2016, Available online 30 July 2016


UV filters are the main ingredients in many cosmetics and personal care products. A significant amount of lipophilic UV filters annually enters the surface water due to large numbers of swimmers and sunbathers. The nature of these compounds cause bioaccumulation in commercial fish, particularly in estuarine areas. Consequently, biomagnification in the food chain will occur. This study estimated the amount of four common UV filters (ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC; butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, BM-DBM; and benzophenone-3, BP3), which may enter surface water in the Gulf of Mexico. Our data analysis was based on the available research data and EPA standards (age classification/human body parts). The results indicated that among the 14 counties in Texas coastal zones, Nueces, with 43 beaches, has a high potential of water contamination through UV filters; EHMC: 477 kg year−1; OC: 318 kg year−1; BM-DBM: 258 kg year−1; and BP by 159 kg year−1. Refugio County, with a minimum number of beaches, indicated the lowest potential of UV filter contamination. The sensitive estuarine areas of Galveston receive a significant amount of UV filters. This article suggests action for protecting Texas estuarine areas and controlling the number of tourists and ecotourism that occurs in sensitive areas of the Gulf of Mexico.
full, complete article - PDF (1209 K)

Short communications

Colonies of Gyrosigma eximium: a new phenomenon in Arctic tidal flats
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 336-340

Józef Wiktor1,*, Agnieszka Tatarek1, Jan M. Węsławski1, Lech Kotwicki1, Michel Poulin2
1Institute of Oceanology PAN, Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: asa@akvaplan.niva.no
*corresponding author
2Research and Collections Division, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada

keywords: Tidal flat; Tube-dwelling diatoms; Spitsbergen

Received 5 February 2016, Accepted 22 April 2016, Available online 16 May 2016


For the first time at Svalbard, a colonial form of the tube-dwelling diatom Gyrosigma eximium was found in summer 2010 in the tidal flats on Spitsbergen at 78°N. The colonies take the form of conical, green structures that are 1–2 cm high and are associated with other diatom taxa and cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriaceae). The diatom colonies were associated with rich meiofauna and apparently act as cohesive factors for the fine sediment. In the Arctic tidal flats, this represents the first observation of long-term sediment stabilization and biological enrichment. Since this first observation, this species has apparently colonized broader areas in Advenentelva's tidal flat.
full, complete article - PDF (2732 K)

How do differences in the nutritional and hydrological background influence phytoplankton in the Vistula Lagoon during a hot summer day?
Oceanologia 2016, 58(4), 341-352

Marek Kruk1,*, Bożena Jaworska1, Izabela Jabłońska-Barna1, Agata Rychter2
1University of Warmia and Mazury, Department of Applied Ecology, Olsztyn, Poland;
e-mail: mkruk@uwm.edu.pl
*corresponding author
2State University of Applied Sciences in Elbląg, Institute of Technology, Elbląg, Poland

keywords: Lagoon; Soluble Reactive Phosphorus; Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen; Phytoplankton; Biomass

Received 18 October 2015, Accepted 13 May 2016, Available online 28 May 2016


The aim of this work was to find out whether the difference between the central Vistula Lagoon (the southern Baltic Sea) and the western lagoon was reflected in the relationships between nutrients and phytoplankton during one-day hot summer conditions when the water temperature exceeded 20°C. Significant differences in Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP) and Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) concentrations, and also in the biomass of the dominant phytoplankton assemblage of Cyanoprokaryota, were noted in the studied parts of the lagoon. No such differences were found for the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio (N:P) or for the biomasses of Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. The very low values of N:P (on average 2.8 and 3.4) indicated strong nitrogen limitation. The Correspondence Canonical Analysis (CCA) showed that the central part of the lagoon could be defined as positively related to DIN and to N:P, and western part could be characterized by correlation with temperature, dissolved oxygen and SRP concentrations. Competition for the limited resources of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen in the western, shallower part of the lagoon was in favour of Cyanoprokaryota, to the detriment of other phytoplankton assemblages. In contrast, the Cyanoprokaryota biomass in the central part of the lagoon, where DIN concentrations were increased, was lower, and Bacillariophyta in particular prospered at their expense. Here, the competition for Soluble Reactive Phosphorus was not so clear-cut.
full, complete article - PDF (750 K)