Oceanologia No. 58 (3) / 16


Original research article

Short communications

Original research article

New simple statistical formulas for estimating surface concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) from remote-sensing reflectance in the southern Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2016, 58(3), 161-175

Sławomir B. Woźniak1,*, Mirosław Darecki1, Monika Zabłocka1, Dorota Burska2, Jerzy Dera1
1Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: woznjr@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland

keywords: Remote-sensing reflectance; Light backscattering; Suspended particulate matter; Particulate organic carbon; Empirical formulas; Southern Baltic surface water

Received 8 January 2016, Accepted 25 March 2016, Available online 15 April 2016


In a step taken towards improving the new system for the satellite monitoring of the Baltic Sea environment, officially started in Poland recently (SatBałtyk System, see http://www.satbaltyk.pl), a new set of simple statistical formulas was derived. These combine the empirically determined spectral values of remote-sensing reflectance Rrs(λ) with the mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in southern Baltic surface waters. The new formulas are based on 73 empirical data sets gathered during 4 research cruises on board r/v Oceania during spring and late summer in the open waters of the southern Baltic and coastal regions of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Correlations of SPM and POC concentrations with reflectance or reflectance ratios in various spectral bands were tested. Several variants of candidate statistical relationships, which can be used later in the construction of simple local remote sensing algorithms for the waters in question, are introduced here. These relationships utilise either absolute values of Rrs at a selected waveband, mostly from the yellow, red or near infrared part of the light spectrum, or Rrs ratios for two different wavebands, mostly ratios of blue to yellow, blue to red and blue to infrared or green to yellow and green to red spectral band. From the numerous simple approximate relationships established, the following two, characterised by large correlation coefficients r2 and small standard error factors X, may serve as examples: SPM [g m−3] = 1480(Rrs(710))0.902 (with the factors r2 = 0.86; X = 1.26) (the unit of Rrs(λ) is [sr−1]) and POC [g m−3] = 0.814(Rrs(555)/Rrs(589))−4.42 (r2 = 0.75; X = 1.37). From the practical standpoint, taking into consideration light wavelengths that are close to or concurrent with the currently available spectral bands used in satellite observations of the Baltic Sea, another two formulas (using the same spectral ratio) are worth pointing out: SPM [g m−3] = 2.6(Rrs(490)/Rrs(625))−1.29 (r2 = 0.86; X = 1.25) and POC [g m−3] = 0.774(Rrs(490)/Rrs(625))−1.18 (r2 = 0.66; X = 1.44). The paper also presents a number of intermediate statistical relationships between SPM and POC concentrations, Rrs spectra and light backscattering coefficients in order to illustrate the simplified physical justification for some of the observed direct statistical relationships, presented as the main content of this work.
full, complete article - PDF (941 K)

The impact of surface currents and sea level on the wave field evolution during St. Jude storm in the eastern Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2016, 58(3), 176-186

Marili Viitak1,*, Ilja Maljutenko1, Victor Alari2, Ülo Suursaar3, Sander Rikka1, Priidik Lagemaa1,4
1Tallinn University of Technology, Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn, Estonia;
e-mail: viitak.marili@gmail.com
*corresponding author
2Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Material and Coastal Research, Geesthacht, Germany
3University of Tartu, Estonian Marine Institute, Estonia
4Estonian Environment Agency, Estonian Weather Service, Estonia

keywords: SWAN; Wave–current–surge interaction; Extreme storm; Hindcast; SAR

Received 5 October 2015, Accepted 29 January 2016, Available online 16 February 2016


A third generation numerical wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) was applied to study the spatio-temporal effect of surface currents and sea level height on significant wave height; and to describe the mechanisms responsible for wave–current interaction in the eastern Baltic Sea. Simulation results were validated by comparison with in situ wave measurements in deep and shallow water, carried out using the directional wave buoy and RDCP respectively, and with TerraSAR-X imagery. A hindcast period from 23 to 31 October 2013 included both a period of calm to moderate weather conditions and a severe North-European windstorm called St. Jude. The prevailing wind directions were southerly to westerly. Four simulations with SWAN were made: a control run with dynamical forcing by wind only; and simulations with additional inputs of surface currents and sea level, both separately and combined. A clear effect of surface currents and sea level on the wave field evolution was found. It manifested itself as an increase or decrease of significant wave height of up to 20%. The strength of the interaction was influenced by the propagation directions of waves and surface currents and the severity of weather conditions. An increase in the wave height was mostly seen in shallower waters and in areas where waves and surface currents were propagating in opposite directions. In deeper parts of the eastern Baltic Sea and in case of waves and surface currents propagating in the same direction a decrease occurred.
full, complete article - PDF (4210 K)

Fisher–Shannon analysis of the time variability of remotely sensed sea surface temperature at the Brazil–Malvinas Confluence
Oceanologia 2016, 58(3), 187-195

Jorge O. Pierini1, Michele Lovallo2, Eduardo A. Gómez3, Luciano Telesca4,*
1Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas (CIC)–UCALP-CCT-BB (IADO-CONICET), CC 804, Bahía Blanca, Argentina
2ARPAB, Potenza, Italy
3CCT-BB (IADO-CONICET), UTN Facultad Regional Bahía Blanca, Bahía Blanca, Argentina
4National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, Tito, PZ, Italy;
e-mail: luciano.telesca@imaa.cnr.it
*corresponding author

keywords: Brazil–Malvinas Confluence Zone; Fisher–Shannon method; Ocean

Received 8 May 2015, Accepted 12 February 2016, Available online 19 March 2016


The collision of the warm and salty southward flowing Brazil Current and the cold and relatively fresh northward flowing Malvinas Current produces a strong frontal zone known as the Brazil–Malvinas Confluence Zone (BMCZ). This is featured by intense presence of eddies and meanders and is one of the most energetic areas of the world oceans. We apply the statistical method of Fisher–Shannon (FS) to the time series of sea surface temperature, derived from the satellite Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery, acquired from 1984 to 1999. The FS method consists of the joint application of Fisher information measure (FIM) and Shannon entropy (SE), measuring respectively the degree of organization and the disorder of a system. Our findings indicate that the FS method is able to locate very clearly the BMCZ, which corresponds to the less organized and more disordered area within the area of confluence between the Brazil and Malvinas Currents.
full, complete article - PDF (1910 K)

First occurrence of thinlip grey mullet, Liza ramada (Risso, 1827) in the Odra River estuary (NW Poland): genetic identification
Oceanologia 2016, 58(3), 196-200

Remigiusz Panicz1,*, Sławomir Keszka2,3,*
1Department of Meat Technology, Faculty of Food Sciences and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland;
e-mail: rpanicz@zut.edu.pl
*corresponding author
2Border Veterinary Inspection, Szczecin, Poland
3Division of Aquaculture, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland;
e-mail: skeszka@zut.edu.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: Non-native species; Liza ramada; Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1; Rhodopsin gene; Mugilidae

Received 25 March 2015, Accepted 10 February 2016, Available online 9 March 2016


The presence of exotic fish species in the Baltic Sea and its tributaries poses a serious threat for native ichthyofauna, mainly due to the spread of new pathogens. As the accurate identification of species is essential for an effective assessment of changes related to the appearance of non-native species in an aquatic environment, in this paper we tested the usefulness of biometrics and molecular markers in identifying a specimen from the Mugilidae family found in the Odra estuary. The results demonstrated that unambiguous identification of the specimen using biometric features was impossible due to high morphological similarities shared by grey mullets. Unambiguous identification was possible only due to molecular markers, e.g. rhodopsin gene, which helped to identify the collected fish specimen as Liza ramada (Risso, 1827), the first specimen of this species found in the Odra River estuary. The presence of an L. ramada specimen in the Odra River – which could signal the expansion of non-native species into wider ranges – may be linked to climate change or human activity.
full, complete article - PDF (708 K)

Phytoplankton pigments and functional community structure in relation to environmental factors in the Pearl River Estuary
Oceanologia 2016, 58(3), 201-211

Chao Chai1,2, Tao Jiang2,*, Jingyi Cen3, Wei Ge4, Songhui Lu3,*
1Qingdao Engineering Research Center for Rural Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China
2Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, China;
e-mail: jiangtaophy@163.com
*corresponding author
3Research Center for Harmful Algae and Marine Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
4College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China

keywords: Phytoplankton; Pigments; Functional community; HPLC; Pearl River Estuary

Received 3 July 2015, Accepted 8 December 2015, Available online 29 December 2015


Two cruises were undertaken in the Pearl River Estuary in November 2011 and March 2012 to analyze the distribution of phytoplankton pigments and to define the relationships of pigment indices and functional community structure with environmental factors. Among 22 pigments, 17 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorophyll a was found in all samples, with a maximum of 7.712 μg L−1 in spring. Fucoxanthin was the most abundant accessory pigment, with mean concentrations of 2.914 μg L−1 and 0.207 μg L−1 in spring and autumn, respectively. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c2, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, and diatoxanthin were high in the northern or northwest estuary in spring and in the middle-eastern and northeast estuary in autumn. Chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c3, prasinoxanthin, and peridinin were similarly distributed during the two cruises. Chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin positively correlated with nutrients in spring, whereas 19′-hex-fucoxanthin and 19′-but-fucoxanthin negatively correlated. The biomass proportion of microphytoplankton (BPm) was higher in spring, whereas that of picophytoplankton (BPp) was higher in autumn. BPm in spring was high in areas with salinity <30, but BPp and the biomass proportion of nanophytoplankton (BPn) were high in areas with salinity >30. BPm increased but BPn reduced with the increase in nutrient contents. By comparison, BPp reduced with the increase in nutrient contents in spring, but no relationship was found between BPp and nutrient contents in autumn. The ratios of photosynthetic carotenoids to photoprotective carotenoids in the southern estuary approached unity linear relationship in spring and were under the unity line in autumn.
full, complete article - PDF (1491 K)

Distribution and invasiveness of a colonial ascidian, Didemnum psammathodes, along the southern Indian coastal water
Oceanologia 2016, 58(3), 212-220

H. Abdul Jaffar1,*, A. Soban Akram1, M.L. Kaleem Arshan1, V. Sivakumar2, M. Tamilselvi3
1Department of Biotechnology, Islamiah College (Autonomous), Vaniyambadi, India;
e-mail: jaffar.ascidian@gmail.com *corresponding author
2Director of Research and Conservation, 4e India, NGO (Reg. No.: 188/2010), India
3Department of Zoology, V.V. Vanniaperumal College for Women, Virudhunagar, Tamilnadu, India

keywords: Ascidians; Distribution; Invasion; South Indian coast; Didemnum psammathodes

Received 28 March 2015, Accepted 9 April 2016, Available online 28 April 2016


Ascidians are well known worldwide for their rapid invasions and also for the presence of potential biomedical molecules. Members of the family Didemnidae are widely distributed in tropical waters and they are reported to be among the families possessing rich bioactive compounds. Didemnum psammathodes has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical waters. The growing evidence of multifarious potential and ever increasing invasion of this species accentuated the need for additional research into its diversity and distribution for sustainable utilization and conservation. The present study was intended to focus on distribution and invasiveness of colonial ascidian, D. psammathodes, along the southern Indian peninsular waters. The present data are based on our own observations made during 2012–2014 period and also on the published and unpublished records of the last 20 years. Out of 45 stations surveyed, D. psammathodes was encountered at a maximum of 41 stations and was found to be more abundant in Hare Island (n = 42), North Break Water (n = 38) and Vizhinjam bay (n = 32). This species was absent at four different stations. Catch per unit effort was higher (19.6) in Hare Island followed by NBW (16.0) and Vizhinjam bay (6.8). The highest number of colonies (136) was observed in calcareous stones, followed by embedded rocks (54) and molluscan shells (33). Hydrographical parameters showed no significant differences between the stations (p < 0.005). It is concluded that D. psammathodes has the potential to invade most of the stations and its distribution was not influenced by hydrographical parameters rather than substrates.
full, complete article - PDF (623 K)

Determination of antibiotic residues in southern Baltic Sea sediments using tandem solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry
Oceanologia 2016, 58(3), 221-234

Grzegorz Siedlewicz1,*, Marta Borecka2, Anna Białk-Bielińska2, Kinga Sikora3, Piotr Stepnowski2, Ksenia Pazdro1
1 Department of Marine Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: gsiedlewicz@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Department of Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland
3Physicochemical Laboratories, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland

keywords: Antibiotic residues; Sediments; SPE; LC–MS/MS; Baltic Sea

Received 14 January 2016, Accepted 22 April 2016, Available online 7 May 2016


The main objective of this study was to adapt analytical procedures for determining antibiotic residues in solid and aquatic samples to marine sediments and to investigate the occurrence of 9 sulfonamides, trimethoprim and 2 quinolones in southern Baltic Sea sediments. The analytical procedure was applied to sediment samples characterized as sand and silty sand. The validation results showed that a sensitive and efficient method applying tandem solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was obtained. Analytes were determined in the lower ng g−1 range with good accuracy and precision. The proposed analytical procedure was applied to the analysis of 13 sediment samples collected from the Baltic Sea along the Polish coast. Concentrations of antibiotic residues in environmental samples were calculated based on external matrix-matched calibration. Residues of nine out of twelve of the above antibiotics were detected in sediment samples in a concentrations of up to 419.2 ng g−1 d.w. (dry weight). Sulfamethoxazole and sulfachloropyridazine were the most frequently detected compounds (58% of the analyzed samples). The occurrence frequency of trimethoprim was 42% and it was always detected simultaneously with sulfamethoxazole. Preliminary studies on the spatial distribution of the analyzed antibiotics indicate a high level of antibiotics occurring in the Pomeranian Bay and close to the mouths of Polish rivers. The study is the first one to demonstrate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in sediments of the Polish coastal area. The obtained results suggest that sediment can be an important secondary source of antibiotic residues in the marine environment.
full, complete article - PDF (723 K)

Short communications

Position, swimming direction and group size of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in the presence of a fast-ferry in the Bay of Biscay
Oceanologia 2016, 58(3), 235-240

Ana S. Aniceto1,2,*, JoLynn Carroll2, Michael J. Tetley3, Cock van Oosterhout1
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Hull, Kingston upon Hull, UK
e-mail: asa@akvaplan.niva.no
*corresponding author
2ARCEx (Research Centre of Arctic Petroleum Exploration), UiT The Arctic University, Department of Geology, Tromsø, Norway
3Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS), Critical Habitats and MPAs Programme, Chippenham, UK

keywords: Fin whales; Ship strikes; Behavior

Received 23 September 2014, Accepted 19 February 2016, Available online 12 March 2016


We analyze group size, swimming direction and the orientation of fin whales relative to a fast ferry in the Bay of Biscay. Fin whale groups (≥3 individuals) were on average closer to the vessel than single individuals and pairs (F1,114 = 4.94, p = 0.028) and were more often observed within a high-risk angle ahead of the ferry (binomial probability: p = 7.60 × 10−11). Also, small groups tend to swim in the opposite direction (heading of 180°) of the ferry at the starboard side (binomial test: p = 6.86 × 10−5) and at the portside (binomial test: p = 0.0156). These findings provide valuable information to improve shipping management procedures in areas at high risk for collisions.
full, complete article - PDF (883 K)

The inflow in the Baltic Proper as recorded in January–February 2015
Oceanologia 2016, 58(3), 241-247

Daniel Rak
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: rak@iopan.gda.pl

keywords: Inflow; Baltic Sea; Salinity; Temperature; Stagnation

Received 18 November 2015, Accepted 1 April 2016, Available online 22 April 2016


Inflowing saline waters of the Major Baltic Inflow (MBI) in 2014 were recorded in the Baltic Proper in January 2015. After 12 years of stagnation, this inflow brought highly saline (about 20) waters into the Bornholm Basin. As in the previous inflow in January 2003, saltwater moved in the near-bottom layer with a current speed of approx. 25 cm s−1. This paper presents data collected in January and February 2015 and compares them to earlier records from 2000 to 2014.
full, complete article - PDF (2135 K)