Oceanologia No. 58 (1) / 16


Original research article

Short communications


Original research article

Significant increase of aerosol number concentrations in air masses crossing a densely trafficked sea area
Oceanologia 2016, 58(1), 1-12

Simonas Kecorius1,2,*, Niku Kivekäs3,4, Adam Kristensson4, Thomas Tuch2, David S. Covert5, Wolfram Birmili2, Heikki Lihavainen3, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen3, Johan Martinsson4, Moa K. Sporre4, Erik Swietlicki4, Alfred Wiedensohler2, Vidmantas Ulevicius1
1Center for Physical Sciences and Technology,
Vilnius, Lithuania;
e-mail: kecorius@tropos.de
*corresponding author
2Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research,
Leipzig, Germany,
3Finnish Meteorological Institute,
Helsinki, Finland,
4Division of Nuclear Physics,
Lund University, Lund, Sweden,
5Department of Atmospheric Sciences,
University of Washington, Seattle, USA

keywords: Ship emission; Particle number size distribution; Absorption Ångström exponent

Received 4 March 2015, Accepted 4 August 2015, Available online 22 August 2015


In this study, we evaluated 10 months data (September 2009 to June 2010) of atmospheric aerosol particle number size distribution at three atmospheric observation stations along the Baltic Sea coast: Vavihill (upwind, Sweden), Utö (upwind, Finland), and Preila (downwind, Lithuania). Differences in aerosol particle number size distributions between the upwind and downwind stations during situations of connected atmospheric flow, when the air passed each station, were used to assess the contribution of ship emissions to the aerosol number concentration (diameter interval 50–400 nm) in the Lithuanian background coastal environment. A clear increase in particle number concentration could be noticed, by a factor of 1.9 from Utö to Preila (the average total number concentration at Utö was 791 cm−3), and by a factor of 1.6 from Vavihill to Preila (the average total number concentration at Vavihill was 998 cm−3). The simultaneous measurements of absorption Ångström exponents close to unity at Preila supported our conclusion that ship emissions in the Baltic Sea contributed to the increase in particle number concentration at Preila.
full, complete article - PDF (3196 K)

Impact of wild forest fires in Eastern Europe on aerosol composition and particle optical properties
Oceanologia 2016, 58(1), 13-24

Tymon Zieliński*, Tomasz Petelski, Agata Strzałkowska, Paulina Pakszys, Przemysław Makuch
1 Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: tymon@iopan.gda.pl

keywords: Biomass burning aerosols; Optical properties; AOD; Regional aerosol modifications; AERONET

Received 13 May 2015, Accepted 23 July 2015, Available online 23 August 2015


In this paper the authors discuss the changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the region of eastern Europe and the Baltic Sea due to wild fire episodes which occurred in the area of Belarus and Ukraine in 2002. The authors discuss how the biomass burning aerosols were advected over the Baltic area and changed the composition of aerosol ensemble for a period of several summer weeks. The air pressure situation and slow wind speeds also facilitated the development of such conditions. As a consequence very high AOD levels were recorded, by an order of 3–4 higher versus normal conditions and they significantly increased the annual averages. On particular days of August 2002 the AOD values reached a level of over 0.7. On these days fine particles fully dominated the entire ensemble of aerosol particles. They were either sulfates or smoke particles. Such situation was unique over a period of many years and it had its serious consequences for the region and especially for the Baltic Sea.
full, complete article - PDF (8775 K)

Thermoelastic surface properties of seawater in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2016, 58(1), 25-38

Katarzyna Boniewicz-Szmyt1,*, Stanisław J. Pogorzelski2,*
1Department of Physics, Gdynia Maritime University,
Gdynia, Poland;
*corresponding author
e-mail: kbon@am.gdynia.pl
2Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdańsk,
Gdańsk, Poland;
e-mail: fizsp@ug.edu.pl

keywords: Baltic Sea; Surface tension; Crude oil-seawater interface; Thermodynamic parameters; Surface viscoelasticity

Received 13 August 2015, Accepted 17 August 2015, Available online 3 September 2015


Correlations and data for the thermoelastic surface properties of seawater were determined by means of surface tension-temperature and surface pressure-area isotherm measurements performed in Baltic Sea coastal waters (Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland). Thermodynamic surface parameters examined include: surface free energy-γ, entropy, enthalpy, surface specific heat of air-seawater (AW), air-crude oil (AO) and crude oil-seawater (OW) interfaces, and the surface elasticity was quantified in terms of complex viscoelasticity modules with relaxation times of the transition processes. The spatial and temporal evolution of the parameters differed significantly from the literature data for seawater since the effect of surface active substances of natural and municipal origin was likely to be present in these coastal waters. The seawater surface turned out to have the viscoelastic 2D character as well as other interfacial systems AO and OW where three crude oils in contact with the seawater were studied for comparison. The dilational elasticity modules were found to follow the sequence EAW > EOW > EAO. Composite oil lens-covered seawater exhibited a significant drop of E from EAW (crude oil free surface) even for low oil coverage fraction F0.
The obtained surface and interfacial tension-temperature dependences allowed to correct the spreading coefficient (S = γAW − γAO − γOW) to the desired temperature range, for example. The latter parameter with the sea surface elasticity data allows one to test the modified model of crude oil spreading proposed by the authors (Boniewicz-Szmyt and Pogorzelski, 2008), for spreading kinetics phenomenon at the surface-tension regime.
full, complete article - PDF (1552 K)

Influence of dissolved organic nitrogen on surface waters
Oceanologia 2016, 58(1), 39-45

Krzysztof Czerwionka1
1 Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdańsk University of Technology,
Gdańsk, Poland;
e-mail: kczer@pg.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: Dissolved organic nitrogen; Biodegradability; Bioavailability; Nitrogen load; Baltic Sea

Received 7 June 2015, Accepted 11 August 2015, Available online 29 August 2015


The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) contained in biologically treated wastewater disposed from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to biodegradability and bioavailability in a water environment. Additionally an evaluation was performed of the participation of this organic nitrogen fraction, including bioavailable DON (bDON), in the nitrogen balance for the Baltic Sea.
Based on the samples of secondary effluent taken from two large municipal WWTPs located in Northern Poland DON bioavailability and biodegradability tests were carried out. It was concluded that DON concentration in the tested samples was on average from 1.5 to 2.0 g N m−3. This fraction constituted as much as 50% of organic nitrogen and 15–18% of total nitrogen contained in treated wastewater.
The participation of biodegradable DON (brDON) in activated sludge tests was on average 24–35%. In the bioavailability tests Selenastrum capricornutum were able to use from 19 to 26% of DON, however taking into account the results of the control test, these values are reduced to 3–4%. On the other hand, taking into account the combined effect of bacteria and algae it was possible to reduce the DON concentration by nearly 40%.
The estimated annual bDON load introduced to Baltic Sea waters from Poland through disposal of treated biological wastewater in 2010 reached up to 1.7 thousand tons of N year−1.
full, complete article - PDF (438 K)

Baltic herring prey selectively on older copepodites of Eurytemora affinis and Limnocalanus macrurus in the Gulf of Riga
Oceanologia 2016, 58(1), 46-53

Līna Livdāne1,*, Ivars Putnisb2, Gunta Rubeneb2, Didzis Elfertsb2, Anda Ikauniecea1
1Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology,
Riga, Latvia;
e-mail: lina.livdane@lhei.lv
*corresponding author
2 Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR” Fish Resources Research Department,
Riga, Latvia

keywords: Clupea harengus membras; Zooplankton; Selective feeding; Condition factor; The Gulf of Riga

Received 23 October 2014, Accepted 29 September 2015, Available online 6 November 2015


Zooplankton availability is a major factor affecting herring body condition that in turn describes its well-being. As herring feeding is known to be selective, it is relevant to access its preferences upon zooplankton species and particular copepod developmental stages to forecast possible intraspecific competition for resources in the species scarce environment of the Gulf of Riga where herring stock size due to successful recruitment has almost doubled since 1989. This study tries to answer whether the small-sized plankters dominated zooplankton community permits herring to be a selective eater. Also how herring body condition has changed in connection to environment driven zooplankton community changes. The time series of zooplankton abundance and herring condition from 1995–2012 were studied; and a detailed study of herring diet was performed monthly by stomach content analysis during the main feeding season in 2011 and 2012. We found that herring selectively prey on Limnocalanus macrurus and older copepodite stages of Eurytemora affinis, and moreover these were species of whose selected copepodite stages explained most of variation in herring condition factor. The found relationship between herring feeding selectivity and long-term variation of herring condition allows applying spring zooplankton abundance of E. affinis and L. macrurus to estimate favourable feeding conditions for herring, and could also require the revision of currently used model for herring recruitment estimations, where only biomass of E. affinis is taken into account. In recent years, the high condition of herring can be associated with a considerable increase of lipid-rich copepod species L. macrurus.
full, complete article - PDF (537 K)

Short communications

The first report on the establishment and spread of the alien clam Rangia cuneata (Mactridae) in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon (southern Baltic)
Oceanologia 2016, 58(1), 54-58

Jan Warzocha*, Lena Szymanek, Bartosz Witalis, Tycjan Wodzinowski
Department of Fisheries Oceanography and Marine Ecology, National Marine Fisheries Research Institute,
Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: janw@mir.gdynia.pl, surajit@myself.com

keywords: Rangia cuneata; Alien species; Vistula Lagoon; Southern Baltic

Received 17 September 2015, Accepted 5 October 2015, Available online 28 October 2015


Information on distribution of the bivalve Rangia cuneata in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon is presented. The species, first recorded in the Lagoon in 2010, has since rapidly colonized almost the entire basin. The distribution and population structure of the species have been studied in the Polish part of the Lagoon since 2012. Preliminary results on distribution and size structure of the population highlight extensive fluctuations in 2012–2014. A drastic reduction in the abundance following the relatively long winter of 2012/2013 suggests that the winter oxygen deficiency associated with the ice cover could be critical for the population development. Potential effects of the new invasive bivalve on the structure of benthic habitats and macrozoobenthos communities are discussed.
full, complete article - PDF (1579 K)


The Polish National Scientific Conference “Baltic 2015” and the inauguration of the “SatBałtyk” satellite monitoring system
Oceanologia 2016, 58(1), I-IV

Jerzy Dera*, Mirosława Ostrowska
Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences,
Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: dera@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Received 15 October 2015, Available online 18 November 2015
full, complete article - PDF (267 K)