Oceanologia No. 57 (1) / 15


In Memoriam

Invited paper

Original research article

Short communication

Invited paper

Making coastal research useful – cases from practice
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 3-16

Hans von Storch*, Kay Emeis, Insa Meinke, Andreas Kannen, Volker Matthias, Beate M.W. Ratter, Emil Stanev, Ralf Weisse, Kai Wirtz
Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht,
Max-Planck-Straße 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany;
*corresponding author
e-mail: hvonstorch@web.de

keywords: Coastal research; Marine spatial planning; Monitoring; Risks and hazards; Making sense; Utility

Received 10 August 2014, Accepted 23 September 2014, Available online 23 October 2014


Coastal research deals with that part of the sea, which is significantly affected by the land, and the part of the land, which is significantly affected by the sea. Coasts are in most cases densely populated, and the activities of people are shaping and changing the land/seascape of the coast. Thus, coast encompasses the coastal sea, the coastal land, coastal flora and fauna, and people. Since peoples’ economic and political preferences change and compete, the human impact on the coast changes is contested and subject to societal decision making processes.
While some coastal research can help informing and constraining such decisions, many legitimate scientific efforts have little bearing on society. All decision making processes are political, so that scientific knowledge is not the dominant driver in such processes. Using cases from the Institute of Coastal Research of Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, we describe some of these potentially useful parts of science, and discuss under which circumstances the potential usefulness transform into real utility. These cases do not span the full range of coastal science.
Important issues are the recognition of alternative knowledge claims, the inevitableness of uncertainties and incompleteness of scientific analysis, the acceptance of the political nature of decisions and the ubiquitous presence of social values. Modesty, self-reflexivity and skepticism are needed on the side of science and an organized exchange with stakeholders and public through designated “border” services.
full, complete article - PDF (92 K)

Original research article

Assimilation of the satellite SST data in the 3D CEMBS model
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 17-24

Artur Nowicki*,1, Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka1, Maciej Janecki1, Maciej Kałas2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
*corresponding author
e-mail: anowicki@iopan.gda.pl
2Marine Institute in Gdańsk,
Gdańsk, Poland

keywords: Satellite data assimilation; Marine ecosystem modelling; Baltic Sea; Operational oceanography

Received 4 July 2014, Accepted 4 July 2014, Available online 22 October 2014


The 3D CEMBS (3D Coupled Ecosystem Model of the Baltic Sea) is a coupled ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea. In operational mode it computes 48-h forecasts of the hydrodynamic and biochemical parameters describing the Baltic Sea state. The Cressman assimilation scheme was implemented as part of the system in order to improve overall model accuracy. The system uses satellite-measured sea surface temperature from the MODIS Aqua spectroradiometer for the assimilation process. The satellite measured SST is obtained from a predefined server, which is part of the Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment project (SatBałtyk).
To validate the model results and the impact of assimilation on the model's accuracy, two separate test runs were performed using historical data covering the years 2011 and 2012. Independent computations were performed for the model with and without satellite SST assimilation, respectively referred to in this paper as 3D CEMBS_A and 3D CEMBS. The results of the computations were then compared with satellite and in situ measured data to validate the model and the assimilation scheme's implementation.
The objective of this paper is to describe the implementation of the satellite SST data assimilation algorithm and to present the results of the preliminary validation of the models with observations.
full, complete article - PDF (1962 K)

Comparison of in situ and satellite ocean color determinations of particulate organic carbon concentration in the global ocean
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 25-31

Marek Świrgoń1,2, Malgorzata Stramska*,1,2
1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Szczecin,
Szczecin, Poland
2 Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
*corresponding author
e-mail: mstramska@wp.pl

keywords: Ocean color; Particulate organic carbon; Satellite oceanography

Received 2 September 2014, Accepted 3 September 2014, Available online 23 October 2014


Ocean color satellite missions have provided more than 16-years of consistent, synoptic observations of global ocean ecosystems. Surface chlorophyll concentrations (Chl) derived from satellites have been traditionally used as a metric for phytoplankton biomass. In recent years interpretation of ocean-color satellite data has progressed beyond the estimation of Chl. One of the newer ocean color products is particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration. In this paper we carry out comparisons of simultaneous satellite and in situ POC determinations. Our results indicate that the performance of the standard NASA POC algorithm (Stramski et al., 2008) is comparable to the standard empirical band ratio algorithms for Chl.
full, complete article - PDF (1160 K)

Temporal changes in Hg, Pb, Cd and Zn environmental concentrations in the southern Baltic Sea sediments dated with 210Pb method
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 32-43

Tamara Zalewska*,1, Jerzy Woroń1, Beata Danowska1, Maria Suplińska2
1 Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute,
Maritime Branch, Waszyngtona 42, Gdynia, Poland;
*corresponding author
e-mail: tamara.zalewska@imgw.pl
2 Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection,
Warsaw, Poland

keywords: 210Pb dating; Heavy metals deposition history; Baltic Sea; Environmental status assessment

Received 26 June 2014, Accepted 27 June 2014, Available online 23 October 2014


The article presents data on heavy metal – Hg, Pb, Cd and Zn – distribution in the layers of marine sediments from the off-shore areas of the southern Baltic Sea: Gdańsk Deep, SE Gotland Basin and Bornholm Deep. Depth profiles of metal concentrations were converted to time-based profiles using the 210Pb dating method and verified by 137Cs distribution in the vertical profile. The linear sedimentation rates in the Gdańsk Deep and SE Gotland Basin are similar, 0.18 cm yr-1 and 0.14 cm yr-1, respectively, while the region of the Bornholm Deep is characterized by a greater sedimentation rate: 0.31 cm yr-1. Regarding anthropogenic pressure, Gdańsk Deep receives the largest share among the analyzed regions. The maximal metal concentrations detected in this area were Zn – 230 mg kg-1, Pb – 77 mg kg-1, Cd – 2.04 mg kg-1 and Hg – 0.27 mg kg-1. The least impact of anthropogenic pressure was noticeable in SE Gotland Basin. The combination of sediment dating with the analysis of vertical distribution of heavy metals in sediments benefited in the determination of target metal concentrations used in environmental status assessments. Reference values of heavy metal concentrations in marine sediments were determined as: Zn – 110 mg kg-1, Pb – 30 mg kg-1, Cd – 0.3 mg kg-1 and Hg – 0.05 mg kg-1 from the period of minor anthropogenic pressure. Basing on the determined indices: enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation indicator (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) the status of marine environment was assessed regarding the pollution with heavy metals.
full, complete article - PDF (961 K)

A comparison between the suspended sediment concentrations derived from DELFT3D model and collected using transmissometer – a case study in tidally dominated area of Dithmarschen Bight
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 44-49

Maryam Rahbani
Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty, University of Hormozgan,
Bandar Abbas, Iran;
e-mail: maryamrahbani@yahoo.com

keywords: Tide; Model; Sediment concentration; Transmissometer

Received 24 June 2014, Accepted 25 June 2014, Available online 23 October 2014


The objective of this investigation is to verify the deficiencies that incorporate both modelled and measured suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) data in a tidal dominated area. For this purpose a tidal channel, in the North Sea, was considered as the case study.
The profiles of SSC from a model were compared with those from the field, in which some dissimilarity was observed. Intensive investigations were carried out to detect that the most discrepancies occur in shallow parts of the area and also during the low velocities. The origin of the shortcomings in regard with the modelling and measuring technique are discussed.
full, complete article - PDF (1961 K)

Influence of the winter phytoplankton bloom on the settled material in a temperate shallow estuary
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 50-60

Valeria A. Guinder*,1, M. Celeste López-Abbate1, Anabela A. Berasategui1, Vanesa L. Negrin1, Georgina Zapperi1, Paula D. Pratolongo1, Melisa D. Fernández Severini1, Cecilia A. Popovich2
1Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET),
CC 804, B8000FWB Bahía Blanca, Argentina;
*corresponding author
e-mail: vguinder@criba.edu.ar
2Laboratorio de Ficología y Micología, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS),
Bahía Blanca, Argentina

keywords: Phytoplankton bloom; Sediment trap; Resuspension; Benthic-pelagic interactions; Shallow estuary

Received 25 July 2014, Accepted 1 August 2014, Available online 23 October 2014


The development of the phytoplankton winter bloom and the accumulation of particulate suspended matter (PSM) inside sediment collectors were assessed in the inner zone of the Bahía Blanca Estuary. The phytoplankton bloom (chlorophyll up to 25 μg l-1 and abundance up to 8 × 106 cells l-1) was related with high levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients and underwater light availability (Im up to 355 μE m-2 s-1) and was dominated by relatively small diatoms, e.g. Chaetoceros sp.1 (3–8 μm). Conversely, large planktonic diatoms, mostly Thalassiosira spp. 20–60 μm, were found in the accumulated material inside the collectors, together with benthic microalgae and high concentrations of chlorophyll, phaeopigments, particulate organic matter (POM between 18 and 32% of total PSM) and C:N ratios >12. The composition of the settled material indicated vertical exportation of phytoplankton to the benthos, external loads of detritus and bottom resuspension. The present study highlights the close benthic‐pelagic interactions in shallow coastal environments characterized by high productivity.
full, complete article - PDF (1676 K)

Potential effects of abiotic factors on the abundance and distribution of the plankton in the Western Harbour, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 61-70

Ahmed M.M. Heneash, Hermine R.Z. Tadrose, Maged M.A. Hussein, Samia K. Hamdona, Nagwa Abdel-Aziz, Samiha M. Gharib*
National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF),
Alexandria, 21556, Egypt;
*corresponding author
e-mail: gharibsamiha@hotmail.com

keywords: Phytoplankton; Zooplankton; Environmental variables; Diversity index; Western Harbour

Received 5 September 2014, Accepted 19 September 2014, Available online 25 October 2014


Samples were collected seasonally from Western Harbour during winter 2012–winter 2013 to examine spatial and temporal variability in phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance in relation to physicochemical parameters. Water was alkaline and well oxygenated. Nutrient concentrations were generally high and related to inflow of discharged waters. A total of 157 and 106 of phytoplankton and zooplankton species were recorded, respectively. The average plankton population was 4 × 106 cells l−1 in terms of phytoplankton and 24 × 103 ind. m−3 in terms of zooplankton. Seasonal differences in the quantitative and qualitative composition of both communities in the different stations were marked. Eutreptiella belonging to class Euglenophyceae overwhelming during spring, reaching an average of 17 × 106 cells l−1. The genus previously was recorded as rare form in the Egyptian waters and may have been introduced via ballast water. Except in spring, copepods were the most abundant group and tintinnid abundances generally increased in spring. The ranges of Shannon diversity indices indicate disturbance level and sometimes high productivity. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH may be responsible for the variations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community structure. The results indicate that not only the discharged water make the harbour at risk, but also the ballast water is not less dangerous, and so, we emphasize the need for activation of the ballast water management IMO Ballast Water Management Conventions to reduce the risk of future species invasions.
full, complete article - PDF (831 K)

The short-term effects of crude oil on the survival of different size-classes of cladoceran Daphnia magna (Straus, 1820)
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 71-77

Lennart Lennuk*, Jonne Kotta, Kristiina Taits, Karolin Teeveer
Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Mäealuse 14,
12618 Tallinn, Estonia;
*corresponding author
e-mail: lennart.lennuk@ut.ee

keywords: Crude oil; Pollution; Daphnia magna; Survival rate; Size-class

Received 15 October 2014, Accepted 16 October 2014, Available online 29 October 2014


We studied the acute effects of crude oil on the size-class population structure of the cladoceran Daphnia magna. D. magna were tested in three size-classes: small (1.4 mm, SE = 0.013), medium (2.5 mm, SE = 0.026), and large (3.1 mm, SE = 0.022) with six concentrations of crude oil (10, 50, 100, 400, 600, and 1700 mg L−1). The most important results of our experiment were as follows: (1) Crude oil had no significantly effect on D. magna below concentration 100 mg L−1. (2) An increasing crude oil concentration above 100 mg L−1 sharply decreased the survival of D. magna, (3) and survival varied among size classes. Being in contact with the concentration of 400 mg L−1 and above, all cladoceran specimens died after 96 h.
full, complete article - PDF (859 K)

Seasonal variability in the population dynamics of the main mesozooplankton species in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea): Production and mortality rates
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 78-85

Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka*,1, Marcin Kalarus2, Maja Musialik-Koszarowska2, Anna Lemieszek3, Maria Iwona Żmijewska1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences
Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland;
*corresponding author
e-mail: dzierzb@iopan.gda.pl
2Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
Gdynia, Poland
3Maritime Institute,
Gdańsk, Poland

keywords: Copepoda; Biomass; Secondary production; Mortality rates; Baltic Sea; Gulf of Gdańsk

Received 2 June 2014, Accepted 9 June 2014, Available online 23 October 2014


This manuscript is a continuation of the results presented in the earlier work by Dzierzbicka-Głowacka et al. (2013). Major purpose of this study is to characterize population dynamics of three major Baltic calanoid copepod species (Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus sp.) in the Gulf of Gdańsk during the years 2006–2007. This paper focuses mostly on biomass estimation, production and mortality rates. All three species had the highest observed biomass in summer 2007 and it was 12.62, 9.16 and 0.80 mg C m−3 for Acartia spp., T. longicornis and Pseudocalanus sp., respectively, while highest daily production rates for those species were 28.22, 18.47, 1.34 mg C m−2, all recorded in summer 2007. Mortality rates were calculated for all copepodite stages of selected species, and in most cases highest values were observed during summer seasons
full, complete article - PDF (675 K)

Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 86-92

Dahlia M. El Maghraby, Eman M. Fakhry*
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science,
Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria, Egypt;
*corresponding author
e-mail: emfakhr@hotmail.com

keywords: Seaweed; Seasonal variation; Total lipid; Fatty acid profile; Biodiesel

Received 9 August 2014, Accepted 20 August 2014, Available online 22 October 2014


Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae), Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae) and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae) were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens) to 4.14% (U. linza) of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.
full, complete article - PDF (381 K)

Bioaccumulation of microcystins in invasive bivalves: A case study from the boreal lagoon ecosystem
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 93-101

Aistė Paldavičienė*,1, Anastasija Zaiko,2 Hanna Mazur-Marzec1, Artūras Razinkovas-Baziukas1
1Coastal Research and Planning Institute, University of Klaipėda,
H. Manto 84, LT 92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania
2Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Institute of Oceanografy, University of Gdańsk,
Gdynia, Poland;
*corresponding author
e-mail: aiste@corpi.ku.lt

keywords: Microcystins; Bioaccumulation; Dreissena polymorpha; Baltic Sea; Curonian Lagoon

Received 30 September 2014, Accepted 2 October 2014, Available online 4 November 2014


In the current study we present the first report on the bioaccumulation of microcystins (MC) in zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from the eutrophic brackish water Curonian Lagoon. The bioaccumulation capacity was related to age structure of mussels and ambient environmental conditions. We also discuss the relevant implications of these findings for biomonitoring of toxic cyanobacteria blooms in the Curonian Lagoon and potential consequences for D. polymorpha cultivation activities considered for the futures as remediation measure. Samples for the analysis were collected twice per year, in June and September, in 2006, 2007 and 2008, from two sites within the littoral zone of the lagoon. The highest microcystin concentrations were measured in mussels larger than 30 mm length and sampled in 2006 (when a severe toxic cyanobacteria bloom occurred). In the following years, a consistent reduction in bioaccumulated MC concentration was noticed. However, certain amount of microcystin was recorded in mussel tissues in 2007 and 2008, when no cyanotoxins were reported in the phytoplankton. Considering high depuration rates and presence of cyanotoxins in the bottom sediments well after the recorded toxic blooms, we assume mechanism of secondary contamination when microcystin residuals could be uptaken by mussels with resuspended sediment particles.
full, complete article - PDF (1263 K)

Short communication

First report on intersex in invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland)
Oceanologia 2015, 57(1), 102-106

Tatiana Guellard*,1, Ewa Sokołowska,1 Bartłomiej Arciszewski2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland;
*corresponding author
e-mail: tguellard@iopan.gda.pl
2Hel Marine Station, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
Hel, Poland

keywords: Intersex; Feminized urogenital papilla; Round goby; Endocrine disruptions; Gulf of Gdańsk

Received 30 September 2014, Accepted 2 October 2014, Available online 4 November 2014


This study is the first to report the presence of intersex in invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus inhabiting the Baltic Sea. The discovery was made in the area of two harbours of the Gulf of Gdańsk (Poland). Macro- and microscopic male gonad analysis revealed the presence of female gametes in testes (testis-ova) of single specimens. In addition, a female-like urogenital papilla was observed in one of the intersex fish. These findings might be due to the exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) however the occurrence of single intersex individuals as a baseline level in investigated population is also possible. In the future, more comprehensive research in the other areas of the Gulf of Gdańsk needs to be carried out in order to determine the extent and to better understand the cause of the observed phenomenon.
full, complete article - PDF (801 K)