Oceanologia No. 56 (3) / 14





Recent sea surface temperature trends and future scenarios for the Mediterranean Sea
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 411-443

Mohamed Shaltout1,2,*, Anders Omstedt2
1Faculty of Science, Department of Oceanography, University of Alexandria,
Alexandria, Egypt;
e-mail: mohamed.shaltout@gvc.gu.se
*corresponding author
2Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg,
P.O. Box 460, Göteborg 40530, Sweden

keywords: Mediterranean Sea, sea surface temperature, climate change, heat exchange, total cloud cover

Received 13 May 2013, revised 25 November 2013, accepted 23 January 2014.


We analyse recent Mediterranean Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and theirresponse to global change using 1/4-degree gridded advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) daily SST data, 1982-2012. These data indicate significantannual warming (from 0.24°C decade-1 west of the Strait of Gibraltar to 0.51°C decade-1 over the Black Sea) and significant spatial variation in annual average SST (from 15ºC over the Black Sea to 21°C over the Levantine sub-basin). Ensemble mean scenarios indicate that the study area SST may experience significant warming, peaking at 2.6°C century-1 in the Representative Concentration Pathways 85 (RCP85) scenario.

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Pronounced anomalies of air, water, ice conditions in the Barents and Kara Seas, and the Sea of Azov
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 445-460

Gennady G. Matishov1,2, Sergei L. Dzhenyuk1, Denis V. Moiseev1,*, Aleksandr P. Zhichkin1
1Murmansk Marine Biological Institute of Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Vladimirskaya St. 17, 183010 Murmansk, Russia;
e-mail: Denis_Moiseev@mmbi.info
*correspondung author
2South Science Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences,
Chekhova Av. 41, 344006 Rostov-on-Don, Russia

keywords: Climate, air, sea ice, anomalies, Voeikov axis, blocking

Received 5 August 2013, revised 18 February 2014, accepted 21 February 2014.


This paper analyses the anomalous hydrometeorological situation that occurred at the beginning of 2012 in the seas of the Russian Arctic and Russian South. Atmospheric blocking in the temperate zone and the extension of the Siberian High to the Iberian Peninsula (known as the Voeikov et al. axis) led to a positive anomaly of air and water temperatures and a decrease in the ice extent in the Barents and Kara Seas. At the same time a prolonged negative air temperature anomaly was recorded in central and southern Europe and led to anomalously severe ice conditions in the Sea of Azov. Winter hydrographic conditions in the Barents and Kara Seas are illustrated by a unique set of observations made using expendable bathythermosalinographs (XCTD).

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Field study of film spreading on a sea surface
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 461-475

Aleksandr E. Korinenko1,*, Vladimir V. Malinovsky1,2
1Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the NAS of Ukraine,
Kapitanskaya 2, Sevastopol 299011, Ukraine;
e-mail: korinenko.alex@gmail.com
*correspondung author
2Small Enterprise DVS LTD,
Kapitanskaya 4, Sevastopol 299011, Ukraine

keywords: Oil slick, film spreading, sea surface pollution, field study

Received 20 December2012, revised 14 March 2014, accepted 31 March 2014.


The results of a field study of surface film spreading on the sea surface are presented.The experiments were carried out in the coastal zone of the Black Sea in a wide range of wind speeds and wave conditions. Vegetable oil was used for preparing the surfactants. It was found that at moderate and strong wind speeds the slicks take on a shape similar to an ellipse and are orientated in the direction of the air flow. An increase in the speed of the spreading slick along its major axis with strongwind was discovered.

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Groundwater flow due to a nonlinear wave set-up on a permeable beach
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 477-496

Anna Przyborska
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55,81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: aniast@poczta.onet.pl

keywords: Pore pressure, permeable beach, circulation of groundwater, filtering, modelling, set-up

Received 12 March 2013, revised 19 February 2014, accepted 21 February 2014.


Water flow through the beach body plays an important role in the biological status of the organisms inhabiting the beach sand. For tideless seas, the groundwater flow in shallow water is governed entirely by the surface wave dynamics on the beach. As waves propagate towards the shore, they become steeper owing to the decreasing water depth and at some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break. When waves break, their energy is dissipated and the spatial changes of the radiation stress give rise to changes in the mean sea level, known as the set-up. The mean shore pressure gradient due to the wave set-up drives the groundwater circulation within the beach zone. This paper discusses the circulation of groundwater resulting from a nonlinear set-up. The circulation of flow is compared with the classic Longuet-Higgins (1983) solution and the time series of the set-upis considered for a 24 h storm. Water infiltrates into the coastal aquifer on the upper part of the beach near the maximum run-up and exfiltration occurs on the lower part of the beach face near the breaking point.

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Relative infaunal bivalve density assessed from split beam echosounder angular information
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 497-521

Noela Sánchez-Carnero1,*, Daniel Rodríguez-Prez2, Nuria Zaragozá3, Victor Espinosa3, Juan Freire4,5
1Grupo de Oceanografá Física, Universidade de Vigo,
Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36200 Vigo, Spain;
e-mail: noelas@gmail.com
*corresponding author
2Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED,
C/Paseo de la Senda del Rey, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3Institut d'Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de Zones Costaneres,
C/Paranimf 1, 46730 Grau de Gandia, Spain
4Barrabés Next,
C. Serrano 16-1, 28001 Madrid, Spain
C. Gobernador 26, 28014 Madrid, Spain

keywords: Shellfish beds, stock assessment, split-beam echosounder, angular information, Haralick textural features, benthic habitat mapping

Received 30 April2013, revised 30 January 2014, accepted 4 March 2014.


Management of shellfish resources requires a spatial approach where mapping is a key tool. Acoustic techniques have been rarely used to map infaunal organisms with a patchy distribution. We propose and test the use of split-beam echosounder angular information to assess razor shell presence and relative density. Our statistical approach combines textural analysis of angular echograms, standard unsupervised multivariate methods andhierarchical classification through dendrograms to identify groups of locations with similar clam densities. The statistical analyses show that the classification is consistent with groundtruthing data and that results are insensitive to boat motion or seabed granulometry. The method developed here constitutes a promising tool for assessing the relative density of razor clam grounds.

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DOC and POC in the water column of the southern Baltic. Part I.Evaluation of factors influencing sources, distribution and concentration dynamics of organic matter
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 523-548

Anna Maciejewska, Janusz Pempkowiak*
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: pempa@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: Deeps: Bornholm, Gdańsk, Gotland; ranges: seasonal, vertical; sources and sinks: primary production, bacterial decomposition, zooplankton, river run-off, inflows from North Sea

Received 14 November 2013, revised 21 January 2014, accepted 22 January 2014.

This study was supported by the Baltic-C/BONUS Plus EUFP6 Project, statutory activities of Institute of Oceanology PAN, Sopot and the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, grant No. N N306 404338.


Organic substances are important components of the marine environment as they determine the properties of seawater and the key biogeochemical processes taking place in it. Organic carbon (OC) is a measure of organic matter. For practical purposes, OC is divided into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). Both DOC and POC play a major role in the carbon cycle, especially in shelf seas like the Baltic, where their concentrations are substantial. In a three-year study (2009-2011) seawater samples for DOC and POC measurements were collected from stations located in the Gdańsk Deep, the Gotland Deep and the Bornholm Deep. The accuracy and precision of analysis were satisfactory; the recovery was better than 95%, and the relative standard deviation was 4% (n = 5). Concentrations of chlorophyll a, phaeopigment a, salinity, pH and temperature were also measured in the same samples. These parameters were selected as proxies of processes contributing to DOC and POC abundance.
The aim of the study was to address questions regarding the vertical, horizontal and seasonaldynamics of both DOC and POC in the Baltic Sea and the factors influencing carbon concentrations. In general, the highest concentrations of both DOC and POC were recorded in the surface water layer (DOC ~4.7 mg dm-3, POC ~0.6 mg dm-3) as a consequence of intensive phytoplankton activity, and in the halocline layer (DOC ~5.1 mg dm-3, POC ~0.4 mg dm-3). The lowest DOC and POC concentrations were measured in the sub-halocline water layer, where the values did not exceed 3.5 mg dm-3 (DOC) and 0.1 mg dm-3 (POC). Seasonally, the highest DOC and POC concentrations were measured during the growing season: surface DOC ~5.0 mg dm-3; sub-halocline DOC ~4.1 mg dm-3 andsurface POC ~0.9 mg dm-3, sub-halocline POC ~0.2 mg dm-3. The ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test results indicate statistically significant differences among the three study sites regarding average concentrations, and concentrations in particular water layers and seasons. It shows that concentrations of DOC and POC differ in sub-basins of the Baltic Sea. The differences were attributed to the varying distances from river mouths to study sites or the different starting times and/or durations of the spring algal blooms. Statistically significant dependences were found between both DOC and POC concentrations and Chl a (phytoplankton biomass), pH (phytoplankton photosynthetic rate), pheo (zooplankton sloppy feeding), salinity (river run-off and North Sea water inflows) and water temperature (season). This was taken as proof that these factors influence DOC and POC in the study areas.

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full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 461 KB

Genetic characteristics of three Baltic Zostera marina populations
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 549-564

Magdalena Gonciarz1,*, Józef Wiktor2, Agnieszka Tatarek2, Piotr Węgleński3, Anna Stanković1,4,5
1Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw,
Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland;
e-mail: m.gonciarz@biol.uw.edu.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland
3Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw,
Żwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
4Institute of Bioechemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland;
5The Antiquity of Southern Europe Research Centre, University of Warsaw,
Krakowskie Przedmieście 32, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland

keywords: Baltic Sea, eelgrass, Zostera marina, microsatellites, population genetics

Received 23 December 2013, revised 17 March 2014, accepted 20 March 2014.

This work was financially supported by the project: "ZOSTERA: Restoration of ecosystem key elements in the inner Puck Bay".


We performed genetic analyses of three Baltic eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations in Puck Bay (PB), Cudema Bay (CB) and Greifswalder Bodden (GB). The aim of this study was to identify the eelgrass population genetically closest to that from the PB, which could potentially serve as a reservoir for the restoration of the underwater meadows in this bay, seriously degraded in the past. We applied a 12-microsatellite assay to test the genetic distance between the target eelgrass populations. We found that the allelic richness values of the GB, PB and CB populations were 2.25, 3.77 and 3.50 respectively. The genetic diversity found in GB was low and could be explained by the population's history, whereas the diversity of CB was higher than expected in a population located at the edge of the species' range. Analyses of genetic differentiation and structure showed that of the three populations studied, PB and CB were closer to each other than to the GB population. The reasons for this differentiation in eelgrass populations and the implications of the results of their genetic analysis on the planned restoration of the PB populations are discussed.

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full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 181 KB

Importance of bacteria and protozooplankton for faecal pellet degradation
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 565-581

Nathalie Morata1,2,*, Lena Seuthe1
1Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromsø,
N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
2Lemar CNRS UMR 6539,
Rue Dumont D'Urville, 29280 Plouzané, France;
e-mail: nathalie.morata@gmail.com
*corresponding author

keywords: Carbon demand, carbon flux, respiration, faecal pellet, Calanus

Received 12 August 2013, revised 03 February 2014, accepted 04 February 2014.

This work is a contribution to the Arctos Network and Conflux project.


The degradation mechanisms of faecal pellets are still poorly understood, although they determine their contribution to vertical fluxes of carbon. The aim of this study was to attempt to understand the microbial (bacteria and protozooplankton) degradation of faecal pellets by measuring the faecal pellet carbon-specific degradation rate (FP-CSD) as an indicator of pellet degradation. "In situ" and "culture" pellets (provided by the grazing of copepods in in situ water and in a culture of Rhodomonas sp. respectively) were incubated in seawater from the chlorophyll a maximum and 90 m depth, and in filtered seawater. When microbes were abundant (at the chlorophyll a maximum), they significantly increased FP-CSD. In addition, culture pellets had a higher FP-CSD than in situ pellets, suggesting that the results obtained with culture pellets should be treated with caution when trying to extrapolate to natural field conditions.

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Short-term variation in zooplankton community from Daya Bay with outbreaks of Penilia avirostris
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 583-602

Kaizhi Li1, Jianqiang Yin1, Yehui Tan1, Liangmin Huang1, Xingyu Song1,2,3,*
1Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Guangzhou 510301, China
2Marine Biology Research Station at Daya Bay,
Shenzhen 518121, China
3South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510301, China;
e-mail: songxy@scsio.ac.cn
*corresponding author

keywords: Zooplankton, Penilia avirostris, nuclear power station, aquaculture, Daya Bay, Dapeng Cove

Received 11 April 2013, revised 10 February 2014, accepted 19 March 2014.

This research was supported by the Knowledge Innovation Program of the ChineseAcademy of Sciences (SQ201307), the Public Science and Technology Research Funds Projects of Ocean (No. 201305030) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41276159, 31101619, 41130855 and 41276161).


The zooplankton community structure in bays fluctuates as a result of anthropogenic activities in such waters. We focused on the short-term variability of a zooplankton community and compared its differences at the outflow of a nuclear power plant (ONPP), in a marine cage-culture area (MCCA) and in unpolluted waters (UW) in the south-west part of Daya Bay from 28 April to 1 June 2001. Environmental factors and zooplankton abundance differed significantly among stations at ONPP, MCCA and UW: high temperatures and a high zooplankton abundance occurred at ONPP, while a high chlorophyll a concentration and a low zooplankton abundance prevailed in MCCA. Statistical analysis revealed that the zooplankton diversity and abundance could be reduced by the activity of the marine cage-culture in a short time. Penilia avirostris made up an important component of the zooplankton in the study area, its abundance ranging widely from 16 to 7267 indiv. m-3 from April to June and peaking at the ONPP outflow. The outbreak of P. avirostris probably resulted from the combined effects of favourable water temperature, food concentration and its parthenogenetic behaviour.

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Benthic non-indigenous species among indigenous species and their habitat preferences in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 603-628

Urszula Janas*, Halina Kendzierska
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: oceuj@ug.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: non-indigenous species, Baltic Sea, Puck Bay, Gammarus tigrinus,Marenzelleria spp.

Received 24 June 2013, revised 08 January 2014, accepted 17 February 2014.

This work was carried out under the "Ecosystem Approach to Marine Spatial Planning – Polish Marine Areas and the Natura 2000 Network" project founded by an EEA grant from Iceland, Lichtenstein and Norway and partly by research grant BW/G 220-5-0232-9.


To date 11 non-indigenous benthic taxa have been reported in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea). Five of the 34 taxa forming the soft bottom communities are regarded as non-indigenous to this area. They are Marenzelleria spp., Mya arenaria, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Gammarus tigrinus and Amphibalanus improvisus. Non-indigenous species comprised up to 33% of the total number of identified macrofaunal taxa (mean 17%). The average proportion of aliens was 6% (max 46%) in the total abundance of macrofauna, and 10% (max 65%) in the biomass. A significant positiverelationship was found between the numbers of native taxa and non-indigenous species. The number of native taxa was significantly higher on a sea bed covered with vascular plants than on an unvegetated one, but no such relationship was found for their abundance. No significant differences were found in the number and abundance of non-indigenous species between sea beds devoid of vegetation and those covered with vascular plants, Chara spp. or mats of filamentous algae. G. tigrinus preferred a sea bed with vegetation, whereas Marenzelleria spp. decidedly preferred one without vegetation.

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Epibionts and parasites on crustaceans (Copepoda, Cladocera, Cirripedia larvae) inhabiting the Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea) in very large numbers
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 629-638

Luiza Bielecka1,*, Rafał Boehnke
1Department of Marine Plankton Research, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: ocelb@univ.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Marine Ecology Department, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland

keywords: Baltic Sea, Zooplankton crustaceans, Epibionts and parasites

Received 4 April 2013, revised 11 December 2013, accepted 10 January 2014.

This work was supported in part by grant No. BW/1320-5-0183-3 from the University of Gdańsk.


The occurrence of epizoic filter-feeding Protozoa (Vorticella and Zoothamnium) and parasitic Protozoa (Ellobiopsis) on Calanoida was noticed in the Gulf of Gdańsk in 1998, 1999 and 2006. The relatively high (4-16% of all calanoids) level of infestation varied depending on the type of infestation (0.1-13% of the population of particular taxa). The dominant copepods – Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Centropages hamatus - were attacked the most frequently (from 10.5% to 54% of all infested calanoids).
Epibiosis and parasitism were observed on all copepod developmental stages (adults, juveniles and nauplii). Epibionts and parasites were located on different parts of the body, but mainly on the prosome. Infestation by epibionts and parasites was not restricted to calanoid copepods: it was also detected in non-negligible numbers on other crustaceans, namely, Harpacticoida, Cladocera (Bosmina sp.) and Cirripedia larvae (nauplii) in the Gulf of Gdańsk.

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Allelopathic interactions between the red-tide causative dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 639-650

Zhuoping Cai1,2,3, Honghui Zhu2, Shunshan Duan3,*,
1Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources Collection and Preservation, Ministry of Agriculture,
Beijing 100081, China,
2State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology,
Guangzhou 510070, China;
e-mail: ocelb@univ.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: Allelopathic interaction, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Red tide

Received 25 August 2013, revised 26 March 2014, accepted 2 April 2014.

This study was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China-GuangdongProvince Joint Key Project (U1133003), Science and Technology Planning Project ofGuangdong Province (2012B020307009), Open Fund from Key Laboratory of AquaticEutrophication and Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher EducationInstitutes, and Open Fund from Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources Collection andPreservation, Ministry of Agriculture.


The interactions between the red-tide causing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense and the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were investigated using a co-culture experiment and an enriched culture filtrate experiment. The results showed that when the two microalgae were cultured together with different initialcell densities, the growth of one species was basically suppressed by the other one. In addition, the enriched culture filtrates of one species had generally inhibitoryeffects on the other one. Our result inferred that P. donghaiense and P. tricornutum would interfere with each other mainly by releasing allelochemicals into the culture medium, and that the degree of allelopathic effects was dependent on the initial cell densities and growth phases. The allelopathic interactions between microalgal species may contribute to the formation and succession of red tides.

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Absence of evidence for viral infection in colony-embedded cyanobacterial isolates from the Curonian Lagoon
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 651-660

Sigitas Sulcius1,4,*, Juozas Staniulis2, Ricardas Paskauskas1,2, Irina Olenina1,3, Airina Salyte4, Aurelija Ivanauskaite4, Evelina Griniene1
1Klaipeda University, Marine Science and Technology Centre,
H. Manto 84, LT-92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania,
2Nature Research Centre, Institute of Botany,
Žaliuju ežeru 49, LT-2021 Vilnius, Lithuania
3Environmental Protection Agency, Marine Research Department,
Taikos 26, LT-91149 Klaipeda, Lithuania
4Klaipeda University, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Biology Department,
H. Manto 84, LT-92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania;
e-mail: sigas@corpi.ku.lt
*corresponding author

keywords: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, bloom dynamics, colony formation, defence strategy, lysis, lysogeny, Microcystis aeruginosa, virus infection, virus-host interactions, virus production

Received 21 October2013, revised 26 March 2014, accepted 12 May 2014.

This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-036/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania.


The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of viral infections in colony-embedded cells of the cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Microcystis aeruginosa collected from the brackish Curonian Lagoon. Natural and mitomycin C-treated A. flos-aquae and M. aeruginosa samples were examined for the presence of viruses and lysis by a combination of light-, epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Here we report a lack of evidence for virus infection, progeny formation and cell lysis in colony-embedded cells of A. flos-aquae and M. aeruginosa. These results indicated that viruses contribute little to the mortality of these cyanobacteria when the latter occur in colonies. Consequently, the results supported the hypothesis that colony formation can, at least temporarily, provide an efficient strategy for protection against virus-induced mortality. Finally, assuming that grazing has a negligible effect on colony-embedded cells in the Curonian Lagoon, we propose that most of the cyanobacterial biomass produced is lost from the pelagic food web by sedimentation.

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Large red cyanobacterial mats (Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont) in the shallow sublittoral of the southern Baltic
Oceanologia 2014, 56(3), 661-666

Maria Włodarska-Kowalczuk1,*, Piotr Balazy1, Justyna Kobos2, Józef Wiktor1, Marek Zajączkowski1, Wojciech Moskal1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: maria@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland

keywords: Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria, algal mats

Received 23 December 2013, revised 29 January 2014, accepted 17 February 2014.


We report the first observation of large red cyanobacterial mats in the southernBaltic Sea. The mats (up to 2.5 m in diameter) were observed by SCUBA divers at 7.7 m depth on loamy sediments in the Gulf of Gdańsk in mid-November 2013. The main structure of the mat was formed by cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont; a number of other cyanobacteria, diatoms and nematode species were also present. After a few days in the laboratory, the red trichomes of S. subsalsa started to turn blue-green in colour,suggesting the strong chromatic acclimation abilities of this species.

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