Oceanologia No. 55 (1) / 13







Relationships between inherent optical properties in the Baltic Sea for application to the underwater imaging problem
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 11-26

Iosif Levin2, Mirosław Darecki1, Sławomir Sagan1, Tamara Radomyslskaya2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: darecki@iopan.gda.pl
2St. Petersburg Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IO RAS),
1 Linia 30, 199053, St. Petersburg, Russia;
e-mail: ocopt@yandex.ru

keywords: Baltic Sea, underwater visibility, light attenuation, optical properties

Received 2 August 2012, revised 18 September 2012, accepted 19 November 2012.

This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research project No. 10-05-00311. Partial support for this study was also provided by the Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk project, funded by the European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09 and statutory research funds from the Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot.


Statistical relationships between coefficients of light attenuation, scattering and backscattering at wavelength 550 nm derived from series of optical measurements performed in Baltic Sea waters are presented. The relationships were derived primarily to support data analysis from underwater imaging systems. Comparison of these relations with analogous empirical data from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans shows that the two sets of relationships are similar, despite the different water types and the various experimental procedures and instrumentation applied. The apparently universal character of the relationships enables an approximate calculation of other optical properties and subsequently of the contrast, signal/noise ratio, visibility range and spatial resolution of underwater imaging systems based on attenuation coefficients at wavelength 550 nm only.

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Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua/Terra aerosol products in coastal regions of European marginal seas
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 27-51

Frédéric Mélin1, Giuseppe Zibordi1, Thomas Carlund2, Brent N. Holben3, Sabina Stefan4
1European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability
TP272, Ispra, 21027, Italy
2Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute,
SE-601 76, Norrköping, Sweden
3Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration,
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA
4University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics,
077125 Magurele, P.O. BOX MG-11, Bucharest, Romania

keywords: aerosols, ocean colour, AERONET, validation, European seas

Received 5 September 2012, revised 26 November 2012, accepted 18 December 2012.


The aerosol products associated with the ocean colour missions SeaWiFS and MODIS (both Aqua and Terra) are assessed with AERONET field measurements collected in four European marginal seas for which fairly large uncertainties in ocean colour in-water products have been documented: the northern Adriatic, the Baltic, Black and North Seas. On average, more than 500 match-ups are found for each basin and satellite mission, showing an overall consistency of validation statistics across the three missions. The median absolute relative difference between satellite and field values of aerosol optical thickness τa at 443 nm varies from 12% to 15% for the three missions at the northern Adriatic and Black Sea sites, and from 13% to 26% for the Baltic and North Sea sites. It is in the interval 16-31% for the near-infrared band. The spectral shape of τais well reproduced with a median bias of the Ängström exponent varying between -15% and +14%, which represents a clear improvement with respect to previous versions of the atmospheric correction scheme. These results show that the uncertainty associated with τa in the considered coastal waters of the European marginal seas is comparable to global validation statistics.

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Influence of the parametrization of water optical properties on the modelled sea surface temperature in the Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 53-76

Małgorzata Stramska1,2,*, Agata Zuzewicz1,2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: mstramska@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Department of Earth Sciences, Szczecin University,
Mickiewicza 16, Szczecin 70-383, Poland

keywords: Baltic Sea, sea surface temperature, biological-physical interactions, ocean models

Received 18 July 2012, revised 6 November 2012, accepted 26 November 2012.

This work was supported by the SatBałtyk project funded by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund (contract No. POIG.01.01.02-22-011/09 entitled "The Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment").


Treatment of light propagation in the water column requires further improvements in the biogeochemical models of the Baltic Sea. Regional models of the Baltic Sea usually assume a simple exponential vertical distribution of the total downward irradiance in the visible spectral range (PAR, photosynthetically available radiation). This is in spite of the fact that modelling studies for open ocean regions have stressed the importance of more detailed optical parameterization for the quality prediction of sea surface temperature and thermal structure of surface waters. In recent years extensive regional in situ bio-optical data sets have become available for the Baltic Sea, which can be used to develop a better understanding of the feedbacks between optics and other processes simulated by the models. In this paper we compare four optical parameterizations used in numerical ocean models and their effects on modelled SSTs. This has been achieved using a one-dimensional ocean model coupled with the bio-optical models. Our results indicate that the differences between the various modelled SSTs using three optical parameterization schemes designed specifically for the Baltic Sea can give differences of up to 4°C in the modelled SSTs. This result warrants further research into the subject.

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full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 392 KB

Comparison of primary productivity estimates in the Baltic Sea based on the DESAMBEM algorithm with estimates based on other similar algorithms
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 77-100

Małgorzata Stramska1,2,*, Agata Zuzewicz1,2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: mstramska@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Department of Earth Sciences, Szczecin University,
Mickiewicza 16, Szczecin 70-383, Poland

keywords: ocean colour, satellite remote sensing, primary productivity, Baltic Sea

Received 12 July 2012, revised 26 October 2012, accepted 4 January 2013.

This work was supported through the SatBałtyk project funded by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund, (contract No. POIG.01.01.02-22-011/09 entitled "The Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment").


The quasi-synoptic view available from satellites has been broadly used in recent years to observe in near-real time the large-scale dynamics of marine ecosystems and to estimate primary productivity in the world ocean. However, the standard global NASA ocean colour algorithms generally do not produce good results in the Baltic Sea. In this paper, we compare the ability of seven algorithms to estimate depth-integrated daily primary production (PP, mg C m-2) in the Baltic Sea. All the algorithms use surface chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, photosynthetic available radiation, latitude, longitude and day of the year as input data. Algorithm-derived PP is then compared with PP estimates obtained from 14C uptake measurements. The results indicate that the best agreement between the modelled and measured PP in the Baltic Sea is obtained with the DESAMBEM algorithm. This result supports the notion that a regional approach should be used in the interpretation of ocean colour satellite data in the Baltic Sea.

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Surface wave generation due to glacier calving
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 101-127

Stanisław R. Massel, Anna Przyborska
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: smas@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: glacier calving, surface waves, pressure impulse, integral transforms

Received 09 September 2012, revised 21 October 2012, accepted 26 November 2012.

The authors are grateful for support from the Arctic and Environment of the Nordic Seas and the Svalbard-Greenland Area (AWAKE) Grant.


Coastal glaciers reach the ocean in a spectacular process called "calving". Immediately after calving, the impulsive surface waves are generated, sometimes of large height. These waves are particularly dangerous for vessels sailing close to the glacier fronts. The paper presents a theoretical model of surface wave generation due to glacier calving. To explain the wave generation process, four case studies of ice blocks falling into water are discussed: a cylindrical ice block of small thickness impacting on water, an ice column sliding into water without impact, a large ice block falling on to water with a pressure impulse, and an ice column becoming detached from the glacier wall and falling on to the sea surface. These case studies encompass simplified, selected modes of the glacier calving, which can be treated in a theoretical way. Example calculations illustrate the predicted time series of surface elevations for each mode of glacier calving.

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Modelling flow in the porous bottom of the Barents Sea shelf
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 129-146

Stanisław R. Massel
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: smas@iopan.gda.pl

keywords: porous media, surface waves, tides, Ekman layer

Received 18 October 2012, revised 21 November 2012, accepted 26 November 2012.


In their recent paper, Węsławski et al. (2012) showed that the Svalbardbanken area of the Barents Sea is characterized by a high organic carbon settlement to the permeable sea bed, which consists of gravel and shell fragments of glacial origin. In the present paper, which can be considered as a supplement to the Węsławski et al. paper, two potential hydrodynamic mechanisms of downward pore water transport into porous media are discussed in detail. In particular, estimated statistical characteristics of the pore water flow, induced by storm surface waves, indicate that the discharge of water flow can be substantial, even at large water depths. During stormy weather (wind velocity V=15 m s-1 and wind fetch X =200 km) as much as 117.2 and 26.1 m3 hour-1 of water filter through the upper 5 m of the shell pit at water depths of 30 and 50 m respectively. For a porous layer of greater thickness, the mean flow discharge is even bigger.
    The second possible mechanism of flow penetration in the porous layer is based on the concept of geostrophic flow and spiral formation within the Ekman layer. Assuming that the current velocity in the near-bottom water layer is ū = 1 m, the resulting mean discharge through this layer becomes as large as 0.99 and 0.09 m3 s-1 for downstream and transverse flows respectively.

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Influence of landfast ice on the hydrography and circulation of the Baltic Sea coastal zone
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 147-166

Ioanna Merkouriadi, Matti Leppäranta
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki,
P.O. Box 48 (Erik Palménin aukio 1), Fi-00014 Helsinki, Finland;
e-mail: ioanna.merkouriadi@helsinki.fi
e-mail: matti.lepparanta@helsinki.fi

keywords: Gulf of Finland, coastal sea ice, hydrography, currents

Received 24 October 2012, revised 4 February 2013, accepted 8 February 2013.


The influence of landfast ice on hydrography and circulation is examined in Santala Bay, adjacent to the Hanko Peninsula, Gulf of Finland. Three-dimensional electromagnetic current meters and conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensors were deployed in winters 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 during the Finnish-Japanese "Hanko 9012" experiment. In each winter, data collection started one month before the initial ice formation and lasted until one month after the ice had melted completely. Temperature and salinity are compared with long-term data from the Tvärminne Zoological Station, also located on the Hanko Peninsula. The water temperature was 2°C less than the long-term average. Ice formation and melting show up in the salinity evolution of the water body, which makes salinity a good indicator of ice formation and breakup in Santala Bay. The circulation under the ice became weaker by almost 1 cm s-1.

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Habitat modelling limitations - Puck Bay, Baltic Sea - a case study
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 167-183

Jan Marcin Węsławski1,*, Lucyna Kryla-Straszewska2,3, Joanna Piwowarczyk1, Jacek Urbański3,4, Jan Warzocha5, Lech Kotwicki1, Maria Włodarska-Kowalczuk1, Józef Wiktor1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: weslaw@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP),
209-215 Blackfriars Road, SE1 8NL, London, United Kingdom
3Centrum GIS WOiG,
Bażyńskiego 4, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
4Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 36, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland
5National Marine Fisheries Research Institute,
Kołłątaja 1, 81-332 Gdynia, Poland

keywords: species distribution, seabed, habitat modelling, spatial and temporal boundaries, ecosystem-based management

Received 18 September 2012, revised 21 January 2013, accepted 24 January 2013.

This study represents a contribution to the project "Advanced Modelling Tool for Scenarios of the Baltic Sea Ecosystem to Support Decision Making (ECOSUPPORT)", which has received funding from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013, Grant 217246) in conjunction with BONUS, the joint Baltic Sea research and development programme, supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Grant 06/BONUS/2009). It also contributes to the Habitat Mapping project ("Ecosystem approach to marine spatial planning - Polish Marine Areas and the Natura 2000 network", PL 0078), supported by a grant from Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway through the EEA Financial Mechanism.


The Natura 2000 sites and the Coastal Landscape Park in a shallow marine bay in the southern Baltic have been studied in detail for the distribution of benthic macroorganisms, species assemblages and seabed habitats. The relatively small Inner Puck Bay (104.8 km2) is one of the most thoroughly investigated marine areas in the Baltic: research has been carried out there continuously for over 50 years. Six physical parameters regarded as critically important for the marine benthos (depth, minimal temperature, maximum salinity, light, wave intensity and sediment type) were summarized on a GIS map showing unified patches of seabed and the near-bottom water conditions. The occurrence of uniform seabed forms is weakly correlated with the distributions of individual species or multi-species assemblages. This is partly explained by the characteristics of the local macrofauna, which is dominated by highly tolerant, eurytopic species with opportunistic strategies. The history and timing of the assemblage formation also explains this weak correlation. The distribution of assemblages formed by long-living, structural species (Zostera marina and other higher plants) shows the history of recovery following earlier disturbances. In the study area, these communities are still in the stage of recovery and recolonization, and their present distribution does not as yet match the distribution of the physical environmental conditions favourable to them. Our results show up the limitations of distribution modelling in coastal waters, where the history of anthropogenic disturbances can distort the picture of the present-day environmental control of biota distributions.

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Spatio-temporal variation of microphytoplankton in the upwelling system of the south-eastern Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon of 2009
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 185-204

Lathika Cicily Thomas1,*, K. B. Padmakumar1, B. R. Smitha1, C. R. Asha Devi1, S. Bijoy Nandan2, V. N. Sanjeevan1
1Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology, Ministry of Earth Sciences,
Kochi-37, Kerala, India;
e-mail: lathikacicily@gmail.com;
*corresponding author
2Department of Marine Biology, Microbiology & Biochemistry,
School of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of Science and Technology,
Kochi-16, Kerala, India

keywords: South Eastern Arabian Sea, upwelling, coastal waters, phytoplankton, chlorophyll a, diatoms

Received 14 May 2012, revised 9 November 2012, accepted 15 November 2012.

This investigation was conducted under the Marine Living Resources Programme funded by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, New Delhi.


The phytoplankton standing crop was assessed in detail along the South Eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the different phases of coastal upwelling in 2009. During phase 1 intense upwelling was observed along the southern transects (8°N and 8.5°N). The maximum chlorophyll a concentration (22.7 mg m-3) was observed in the coastal waters off Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N). Further north there was no signature of upwelling, with extensive Trichodesmium erythraeum blooms. Diatoms dominated in these upwelling regions with the centric diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus being the dominant species along the 8°N transect. Along the 8.5°N transect pennate diatoms like Nitzschia seriata and Pseudo-nitzschia sp. dominated. During phase 2, upwelling of varying intensity was observed throughout the study area with maximum chlorophyll a concentrations along the 9°N transect (25 mg m-3) with Chaetoceros curvisetus as the dominant phytoplankton. Along the 8.5°N transect pennate diatoms during phase 1 were replaced by centric diatoms like Chaetoceros sp. The presence of solitary pennate diatoms Amphora sp. and Navicula sp. were significant in the waters off Kochi. Upwelling was waning during phase 3 and was confined to the coastal waters of the southern transects with the highest chlorophyll a concentration of 11.2 mg m-3. Along with diatoms, dinoflagellate cell densities increased in phases 2 and 3. In the northern transects (9°N and 10°N) the proportion of dinoflagellates was comparatively higher and was represented mainly by Protoperidinium spp., Ceratium spp. and Dinophysis spp.

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Summer mesozooplankton community of Moller Bay (Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, Barents Sea)
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 205-218

Vladimi G. Dvoretsky, Alexander G. Dvoretsky
Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI),
17 Vladimirskaya St., Murmansk 183010, Russia;
e-mail: vdvoretskiy@mmbi.info
*corresponding author

keywords: mesozooplankton, vertical distribution, Arctic shelf, Barents Sea

Received 5 September 2012, revised 26 November 2012, accepted 18 December 2012.


Novaya Zemlya Archipelago is the eastern boundary of the Barents Sea. The plankton of this region have been less intensively studied than those of other Arctic areas. This study of the mesozooplankton assemblage of Moller Bay was conducted in August 2010. The total mesozooplankton abundance and biomass ranged from 962 to 2980 individuals m-3 (mean ± SD: 2263 ± 921 indiv. m-3) and from 12.3 to 456.6 mg dry mass m-3 (mean ± SD: 192 ± 170 DM m-3) respectively. Copepods and appendicularians were the most numerous groups with Oithona similis, Pseudocalanusspp., Acartiaspp., Calanus glacialis and Oikopleura vanhoeffenni being the most abundant and frequent. Mesozooplankton abundance tended to decrease with depth, whereas an inverse pattern was observed for the total biomass. Total mesozooplankton biomass was negatively correlated with water temperature and positively correlated with salinity and chlorophyll a concentration. Comparison with previous data showed significant interannual variations in the total zooplankton stock in this region that may be due to differences in sampling seasons, climatic conditions and the distribution of potential food sources (phytoplankton and seabird colonies).

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Seasonal fluxes of phosphate across the sediment-water interface in Edku Lagoon, Egypt
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 219-233

Mona Kh. Khalil, Ahmed E. Rifaat
National Institute of Oceanography, and Fisheries (NIOF),
Al Anfushi 21556, Alexandria, Egypt;
e-mail: mona_kh_kh@hotmail.com;
e-mail: aerifaat@yahoo.co.uk

keywords: phosphorus, geochemical processes, modelling, coastal lagoon, Edku Lagoon

Received 29 March 2012, revised 13 December 2012, accepted 7 January 2013.


Edku Lagoon is a shallow, brackish, coastal wetland located in the north-western part of the Nile Delta. It suffers from a high level of eutrophication, owing to the heavy load of nutrients, especially phosphorus. The purpose of this paper was to study the flux rates of organic and inorganic phosphorus across the sediment water interface in Edku Lagoon. Both the organic and inorganic phosphorus of surface sediments, pore water and their concentrations in the water just above the sediments were used to calculate the flux rates and to derive the geochemical models. These suggest that, at present, the flux of inorganic and organic phosphorus is from water to sediments via the sedimentation of inorganic particles and organic matter. The results show that phosphorus deposition to the sediments exceeds the rate of inorganic phosphorus release from the sediments to the water column. In a steady state, the rates of organic phosphorus release more or less match the rates of deposition. These reflect the imbalance (accumulation) of phosphorus in the geochemical cycle in the lagoon and its highly eutrophic status. Efforts to control the eutrophication of Edku Lagoon have focused on reducing the phosphorus input.

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full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 287 KB

First records of polychaetes new to Egyptian Mediterranean waters
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 235-267

Mohamed Moussa Dorgham*, Rasha Hamdy, Hoda Hassan El-Rashidy, Manal Mohamed Atta
Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University,
Alexandria, 21511, Egypt;
e-mail: mdorgham1947@yahoo.com
*corresponding author

keywords: alien polychaetes, new migrant polychaetes, Alexandria polychaetes, Egyptian polychaetes

Received 4 September 2012, revised 5 November 2012, accepted 19 November 2012.


Nineteen benthic polychaete species were recorded for the first time in the intertidal zone of the Alexandria coast, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea. They belong to Syllidae (7 species), Hesionidae (3 species), Serpulidae (2 species) and 7 other families (one species each). Of these species Eunice miurai Carrera-Parra & Salazar-Vallejo 1998 appears to be new to the Mediterranean Sea, while four of the alien species earlier recorded in the Mediterranean were found for the first time in Egyptian waters: Opisthosyllis brunnea Langerhans 1879, Loimia medusa Savigny 1822, Syllis schulzi Hartmann-Schröder 1960, Phyllodoce longifrons Ben-Eliahu 1972.
    The newly recorded species demonstrated markedly different patterns of frequency of occurrence and numerical abundance. Spirobranchus triqueter Linnaeus 1758, S. schulzi, L. medusa and Salvatoria clavata Claparède 1863 were permanent and abundant species in fouling samples along the Alexandria coast. Saccocirrus papillocercus Bobretzky 1872 persisted in the sediments at two sites, with a much higher count at the stressed one, while Protodrilus sp. inhabited sediments at two other sites throughout the year, sometimes in very high numbers. In addition, the alien species found earlier, Brania arminii Langerhans 1881, Odontosyllis fulgurans Audouin & Milne-Edwards 1833 and O. brunnea Langerhans 1879, were frequently observed along the Alexandria coast.

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Compensatory growth of the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense induced by nitrogen stress
Oceanologia 2013, no. 55(1), pp. 269-276

Zhuoping Cai1,2, Shunshan Duan2, Honghui Zhu1,*
Guangdong Institute of Microbiology,
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application,
Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology
(Ministry-Guangdong Province Jointly Breeding Base),
South China, Guangzhou 510070, China;
e-mail: zhuhonghui66@yahoo.com.cn;
*corresponding author
2Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University,
Guangzhou 510632, China;
e-mail: zhuopingcai@yahoo.com

keywords: compensatory growth, Prorocentrum donghaiense, nitrogen

Received 21 November 2012, revised 13 February 2013, accepted 18 February 2013.

This study was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China-Guangdong Province Joint Key Project (U1133003), Natural Science Foundation of China (41176104, 31070103), and Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province Key Project (10251007002000001).


Although the phenomenon of compensatory growth has been documented in some animals and higher plants, little information is available on its manifestation in marine microalgae. We have conducted the first study on the compensatory growth of the red tide causative dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense after its recovery from different nitrogen concentrations. The results showed that NaNO3 concentrations of 0 and 7.5 mg l-1 significantly reduced the growth of P. donghaiense, as compared to 37.5 and 75 mg l-1. When the microalgal cells were returned to 75 mg l-1, they exhibited subsequent compensatory growth. The most significant compensatory growth was found in those cells previously experiencing 0 mg dm3, followed by 7.5 mg dm3, indicating that compensatory growth depended on the extent of nitrogen stress they had been subjected to. Our results suggest that compensatory growth can be induced in the marine microalga P. donghaiense after its recovery from nitrogen fluctuation, and that this should be taken into consideration in the prevalence of P. donghaiense blooms in coastal waters.

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