Oceanologia No. 54 (4) / 12


Contents


Papers


Papers



The impact of a non-uniform land surface on the radiation environment over an Arctic fjord - a study with a 3D radiative transfer model for stratus clouds over the Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(4), pp. 509-543
doi:10.5697/oc.54-4.509

Anna Rozwadowska*, Izabela Górecka**
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: ania@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author,
**former affiliation

keywords: Monte Carlo modelling, stratus, solar radiation, spatial variability, downward irradiance, plane-parallel bias, solar flux anomaly due to the uniform surface assumption, nadir radiance, Hornsund, Spitsbergen, Arctic

Received 10 June 2011, revised 18 April 2012, accepted 9 October 2012.

This research was carried within the framework of Polish Research Project NN307315436 founded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education in 2009-2011.

Abstract

This paper estimates the influence of land topography and cover on 3D radiative effects under overcast skies in the Arctic coastal environment, in particular in the Hornsund fjord region, Spitsbergen. The authors focus on the impact of a non-uniform surface on: (1) the spatial distribution of solar fluxes reaching the fjord surface, (2) spectral shortwave cloud radiative forcing at the fjord surface, (3) the solar flux anomaly at the domain surface resulting from the assumption of a uniform surface, i.e. the error due to plane parallel assumptions in climate models, and (4) remote sensing of cloud optical thickness over the fjord. Their dependence on spectral channel, cloud optical thickness, cloud type, cloud base height, surface albedo and solar zenith angle is discussed. The analysis is based on Monte Carlo simulations of solar radiation transfer over a heterogeneous surface for selected channels of the MODIS radiometer. The simulations showed a considerable impact of the land surrounding the fjord on the solar radiation over the fjord. The biggest differences between atmospheric transmittances over the fjord surface and over the ocean were found for a cloud optical thickness τ = 12, low solar zenith angle θ, high cloud base and snow-covered land. For τ = 12, θ = 53°, cloud base height 1.8 km and wavelength λ = 469 nm, the enhancement in irradiance transmittance over the fjord was 0.19 for the inner fjords and 0.10 for the whole fjord (λ = 469 nm). The land surrounding the Hornsund fjord also had a considerable impact on the spectral cloud radiative forcing on the fjord surface and the solar flux anomaly at the domain surface due to the uniform surface assumption. For the mouth and central part of the fjord the error due to the use of channel 2 of the MODIS radiometer (λ = 858 nm) for cloud optical thickness retrieval was < 1 in the case of low-level clouds (cloud base height 1 km, nadir radiance, θ = 53°, cloud optical thickness retrieved solely from MODIS channel 2). However, near the shoreline (up to 2 km from it), especially over the inner fjords, the cloud optical thickness was then overestimated by > 3 for τ = 5 and by > 5 for τ = 20.

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Model dependences of the deactivation of phytoplankton pigment excitation energy on environmental conditions in the sea
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(4), pp. 545-564
doi:10.5697/oc.54-4.545

Mirosława Ostrowska
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: ostra@iopan.gda.pl

keywords: chlorophyll a fluorescence, marine photosynthesis, non-photochemical quenching, of the chlorophyll a fluorescence, quantum yields of deactivation processes

Received 7 August 2012, revised 19 September 2012, accepted 27 September 2012.

Support for this study was provided by the project "Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk" funded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

Abstract

A semi-empirical, physical models have been derived of the quantum yield of the deactivation processes (fluorescence, photosynthesis and heat production) of excited states in phytoplankton pigment molecules. Besides some already known models (photosynthesis and fluorescence), this novel approach incorporates the dependence of the dissipation yield of the excitation energy in phytoplankton pigment molecules on heat. The quantitative dependences of the quantum yields of these three processes on three fundamental parameters of the marine environment are defined: the chlorophyll concentration in the surface water layer Ca(0) (the basin trophicity), the irradiance PAR(z) and the temperature temp(z) at the study site. The model is complemented with two other relevant models describing the quantum yield of photosynthesis and of natural Sun-Induced Chlorophyll a Fluorescence (SICF) in the sea, derived earlier by the author or with her participation on the basis of statistical analyses of a vast amount of empirical material. The model described in the present paper enables the estimation of the quantum yields of phytoplankton pigment heat production for any region and season, in waters of any trophicity at different depths from the surface to depths of ca 60 m. The model can therefore be used to estimate the yields of these deactivation processes in more than half the thickness of the euphotic zone in oligotrophic waters and in the whole thickness (and deeper) of this zone in mesotrophic and eutrophic waters. In particular these relationships may be useful for a component analysis of the budget of light energy absorbed by phytoplankton pigments, namely, its utilization in fluorescence, photochemical quenching and nonphotochemical radiationless dissipation - i.e. direct heat production.

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Modelled quantum yields and energy efficiency of fluorescence, photosynthesis and heat production by phytoplankton in the World Ocean
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(4), pp. 565-610
doi:10.5697/oc.54-4.565

Mirosława Ostrowska1,*, Bogdan Woźniak1,2, Jerzy Dera1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: ostra@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Physics, Pomeranian University in Słupsk,
Arciszewskiego 22B, Słupsk 76-200, Poland

keywords: World Ocean, Sun-Induced Chlorophyll a Fluorescence (SICF), photosynthesis, heat production by phytoplankton, utilization budgets of the excitation energy of pigment molecules, quantum yields and energy efficiences of chlorophyll a fluorescence; photochemical, and non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence

Received 21 August 2012, revised 27 September 2012, accepted 5 October 2012.

Support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk funded by the European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

Abstract

The paper discusses the utilization budgets of the excitation energy of phytoplankton pigment molecules activated on absorbing solar radiation under various typical conditions obtaining in the World Ocean. The deactivation of these molecules following the conversion of the excitation energy to the fluorescence of chlorophyll a, the photosynthesis of organic matter and heat is taken into account. To this end, a great many model computations were performed; these made use of the authors' earlier models of the dependence of the quantum yields and energy efficiencies of the above processes on the three principal environmental factors governing the functioning of marine plant communities: the chlorophyll a concentration in the surface water layer (the trophic index of waters), temperature and the underwater irradiance at different depths in the sea. These model relationships were used to determine vertical profiles of the quantum yields and energy efficiencies of the chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthesis and heat production by phytoplankton in different trophic types of sea in three different climatic zones (tropical, temperate and polar), in two seasons of the year - June (summer in the northern hemisphere) and January (winter in the northern hemisphere). The results of the calculations are given for areas of oceanic Case 1 waters, which cover more than 90% of the volume of all basins in the World Ocean (according to the optical classification by Morel & Prieur 1977). The results of these calculations, though preliminary, provide a comprehensive description of the range of variability of the yields / efficiencies of the three deactivation processes. The results have made it possible to summarize, within the context of the euphotic zone, of the budgets of phytoplankton pigment molecule excitation energy expended on three complementary processes, namely, the fluorescence of chlorophyll a, the photochemical assimilation of inorganic carbon and the photosynthesis of organic matter, and the radiationless, nonphotochemical conversion of the pigment molecules' activation energy to heat.

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Inherent optical properties and remote sensing reflectance of Pomeranian lakes (Poland)
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(4), pp. 611-630
doi:10.5697/oc.54-4.611

Dariusz Ficek1,*, Justyna Meler2, Tomasz Zapadka1, Bogdan Woźniak1,2, Jerzy Dera2
1Institute of Physics, Pomeranian University in Słupsk,
Arciszewskiego 22B, Słupsk 76-200, Poland;
e-mail: ficek@apsl.edu.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;

keywords: light absorption, light scattering, remote sensing reflectance, concentrations of optically active components, Pomeranian lakes (Poland)

Received 4 July 2012, revised 10 August 2012, accepted 24 August 2012.

This paper was carried out within the framework of the SatBaltyk project funded by the European Union through European Regional Development Fund, (contract No. POIG.01.01.02-22-011/09 entitled "The Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment"). The partial support for this study was also provided by the MNiSW (Ministry of Science and Higher Education) as a research project N N306 066434 in the years 2008-2011 and also as a part of Pomeranian University and IO PAS's statutory research.

Abstract

This paper describes the results of comprehensive empirical studies of the inherent optical properties (IOPs), the remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ) and the contents of the principal optically active components (OAC) i.e. coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll a, in the waters of 15 lakes in Polish Pomerania in 2007-2010. It presents numerous spectra of the total absorption a(λ) and scattering b(λ) ≈ bp(λ) of light in the visible band (400-700 nm) for surface waters, and separately, spectra of absorption by CDOM aCDOM(λ) and spectra of the mass-specific coefficients of absorption ap*(SPM)(λ) and scattering bp*(SPM)(λ) by SPM. The properties of these lake waters are highly diverse, but all of them can be classified as Case 2 waters (according to the optical classification by Morel & Prieur 1977) and they all have a relatively high OAC content. The lakes were conventionally divided into three types: Type I lakes have the lowest OAC concentrations (chlorophyll concentration Ca = (8.76 ± 7.4) mg m-3 and CDOM absorption coefficients aCDOM(440) = (0.57 ± 0.22) m-1 (i.e. mean and standard deviation), and optical properties (including spectra of Rrs(λ) resembling those of Baltic waters. Type II waters have exceptionally high contents of CDOM (aCDOM(440) = (15.37 ± 1.54) m-1), and hence appear brown in daylight and have very low reflectances Rrs(λ) (of the order of 0.001 sr-1). Type III waters are highly eutrophic and contain large amounts of suspended matter, including phytoplankton ((CSPM = (47.0 ± 39.4) g m-3, Ca = (86.6 ± 61.5) mg m-3; aCDOM(440) = (2.77 ± 0.86) m-1). Hence the reflectances Rrs(λ) of these type of waters are on average one order of magnitude higher than those of the other natural waters, reaching maximum values of 0.03 sr-1 in λ bands 560-580 nm and 690-720 nm (see Ficek et al. 2011). The article provides a number of empirical formulas approximating the relationships between the properties of these lake waters.

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Remote-sensing observations of coastal sub-mesoscale eddies in the south-eastern Baltic
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(4), pp. 631-654
doi:10.5697/oc.54-4.631

Evgenia Gurova*, Boris Chubarenko
Atlantic Branch of the P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IO RAS),
Pr. Mira 1, 236000 Kaliningrad, Russia;
e-mail: evguruna@gmail.com
*corresponding author

keywords: coastal currents, submesoscale eddies, Baltic Sea, remote sensing, MODIS, SAR, CODAR

Received 11 April 2012, revised 6 July 2012, accepted 4 September 2012.

Abstract

This paper presents an overview of the sub-mesoscale eddies observed in the coastal zone of the south-eastern Baltic near the shores of the Sambian Peninsula and the Curonian Spit based on CODAR (high-frequency coast-based radar) measurements and analysis of MODIS and ASAR satellite images for the period 30 March 2000-31 December 2011. It was found that when winds are predominantly SW, S or W, a wake eddy of varying size (up to 25 km in diameter) forms off Cape Taran and can cover the area between the shoreline and the 65 m isobath. Its longest lifetime, observed using MODIS images, was 6 days. Another location where coastal sub-mesoscale eddies (up to 10-15 km in diameter) of varying form regularly appear is the coastal slope near the southern and central part of the Curonian Spit.

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Influence of the wind field on the radiance of a marine shallow: evidence from the Caspian Sea
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(4), pp. 655-673
doi:10.5697/oc.54-4.655

Genrik S. Karabashev*, Marina A. Evdoshenko
P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IO RAS),
36, Nahimovski prospect, Moscow, Russia, 117997;
e-mail: genkar@mail.ru
*corresponding author

keywords: Caspian Sea, SeaWiFS, radiance, sediments, resuspension

Received 25 June 2012, revised 3 September 2012, accepted 1 October 2012.

This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grants 08-05-00298a, 12-05-00441a. The paper was presented at the VI International conference "Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters", St. Petersburg, Russia, September 6-10, 2011.

Abstract

The influence of the near-water wind field on the radiance of a marine shallow was studied on the basis of daily SeaWiFS ocean colour scanner data and QuickScat scatterometer wind data collected from 1999 to 2004 in the southern Caspian Sea, where the deep basin borders a vast shallow west of the shore of meridional extent. It was found that radiance distributions, clustered by wind rhumbs, exhibited different long-term mean patterns for winds of opposing directions: within the shallow's boundaries, the radiances were about twice as high for winds having an offshore component with reference to the onshore wind conditions. The zonal profile of radiance across the shallow resembled a closed loop whose upper and lower branches corresponded to the offshore and onshore winds respectively. The loop was the most pronounced at sites with 10-15 m of water for any wavelength of light, including the red region. On the basis of specific features of the study area, we attributed this pattern to sunlight backscattered from bottom sediments resuspended by bottom compensation currents induced by the offshore winds.

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Water column conditions in a coastal lagoon near Jeddah, Red Sea
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(4), pp. 675-685
doi:10.5697/oc.54-4.675

Alaa M. A. Albarakati*, Fazal Ahmad
Faculty of Marine Sciences, King Abdulaziz University,
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;
e-mail: aalbarakati@kau.edu.sa
*corresponding author

keywords: Red Sea, lagoon, water column

Received 25 October 2011, revised 14 April 2012, accepted 16 July 2012.

Abstract

Water column conditions in a lagoon near Jeddah are investigated on the basis of changes in potential energy. Three major factors including balance of surface heat at the air-sea interface, wind and tidal mixing are considered. A negative potential energy change dv/dt will develop stratification, whereas positive dv/dt will tend to mix the water column. The tidal effect is greater in summer with wind mixing showing no great variations. The buoyancy effect of the heat balance at the surface is negative from April to October. This negative buoyancy effect will tend to develop stratification but the positive contributions of wind and tide counteract this and the water column remains mixed except in September and October, when a weak stratification may develop. Generally, the water column remains practically mixed throughout the year. The change in heat content of the water column from mid-April to mid-September is about 3.3 × 108 J. During this period the net heat input at the air interface is about 2.0 × 108 J, which is about 40% less than the heat content of the water column, showing that the heat is advected towards the central area from the shallower periphery of the lagoon.

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Phytoplankton assemblage of a solar saltern in Port Fouad, Egypt
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(4), pp. 687-700
doi:10.5697/oc.54-4.687

Fedekar Fadel Madkour1,*, Mona Mohamed Gaballah2
1Marine Science Department, Faculty of Science,
Port Said University, Egypt;
e-mail: fedekarmadkour@ymail.com
*corresponding author
2 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, 41522,
Ismailia, Egypt
keywords: solar salterns, Port Fouad, phytoplankton, salinity gradient, halotolerant, biological system

Received 24 July 2012, revised 17 September 2012, accepted 27 September 2012.

Abstract

The present study is the first investigation of the phytoplankton community in one of Egypt's saltworks. The phytoplankton composition and distribution in five ponds of increasing salinity were investigated in the solar saltern of Port Fouad. The phytoplankton community consisted of 42 species belonging to cyanobacteria (16), diatoms (12), dinoflagellates (11), Euglenophyceae (2) and Chlorophyceae (1). The number of species decreased significantly and rapidly with increasing salinity, varying between 33 species in the first pond (P1) and one species in the crystallizer pond (P5). Conversely, the total phytoplankton density, except that recorded in P1, increased significantly with rising salinity, fluctuating between 8.7 and 56 × 105 individuals l-1 in P2 and P5 respectively. In spite of the local variations in climate and nutrient availability, the phytoplankton composition, density and spatial variations along the salinity gradient were, in many respects, very similar to what has been observed in other solar saltworks. The pond with the lowest salinity (P1 - < 52 g l-1) was characterized by a significant diversity and blooming of diatoms and dinoflagellates. Intermediate salinity ponds (P2 and P3) with salinity ∼ 112-180 g l-1 exhibited a decline in both species richness and density, but the stenohaline blue green algae ( Synechocystis salina) did flourish. The highly saline concentrating ponds and crystallizers (P4 and P5) with salinity ∼ 223-340 g l-1 were characterized by few species, the disappearance of blue green algae and the thriving of the halotolerant green alga Dunaliella salina.

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First report of endosymbionts in Dreissena polymorpha from the brackish Curonian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(4), pp. 701-713
doi:10.5697/oc.54-4.701

Romualda Chuševė1,2,*, Sergey E. Mastitsky3, Anastazja Zaiko1
1Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Klaipeda University,
H. Manto 84, LT 92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania
2ithuania Environment Protection Agency, Marine Research Department,
Taikos av. 26, LT-91149, Klaipeda, Lithuania;
e-mail: romualda.chuseve@corpi.ku.lt
*corresponding author
3 RNT Consulting Inc.,
823 County Road 35, Picton, Ontario K0K 2T0, Canada

keywords: Dreissena polymorpha, Conchophthirus acuminatus, Ophryoglena sp., seasonal dynamics, brackish water

Received 7 May 2012, revised 4 September 2012, accepted 27 September 2012.

This study was supported by the European Regional Development Fund through the Baltic Sea Region Programme project `Sustainable Uses of Baltic Marine Resources' (SUBMARINER No. 055).

Abstract

We report the first results of a parasitological study of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels) from the brackish Curonian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea. Zebra mussels were collected monthly from May to October 2011 from a site near the mouth of the River Nemunas. Three types of endosymbionts were found in the mantle cavity and visceral mass of the molluscs during dissections, i.e. the commensal ciliate Conchophthirus acuminatus and parasitic ciliate Ophryoglena sp., and rarely encountered, unidentified nematodes. The abundances of C. cuminatus and Ophryoglena sp. were positively associated with host shell length and water temperature, but no effect of water salinity was detected. As the endosymbionts are either highly host-specific to zebra mussels (C. acuminatus and Ophryoglena sp.) or are probably free-living organisms that inadvertently infect the molluscs (nematodes), we conclude that the presence of D. polymorpha in the Curonian Lagoon does not pose any serious parasitological risk to native biota. We emphasize, however, that this conclusion should be treated with caution as it is based on a study conducted only at a single location. Our work extends the currently scarce records of D. polymorpha parasites and commensals from brackish waters, and adds to a better understanding of the ecological impact this highly invasive mollusc causes in the areas it has invaded.

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