Oceanologia No. 54 (3) / 12




Variability of temperature and salinity over the last decade in selected regions of the southern Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(3), pp. 339-354

Daniel Rak*, Piotr Wieczorek
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: rak@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: temperature, salinity, southern Baltic Sea, trend, seasonal variability

Received 1 July 2011, revised 16 February 2012, accepted 5 April 2012.


Changes in the basic physical properties of selected areas of the Baltic Proper were analysed on the basis of the results of a 12-year series of high-resolution measurements collected during cruises of r/v "Oceania". The high-resolution CTD sections covered three main basins: the Bornholm Basin, Słupsk Furrow and Gdańsk Basin. Positive temperature trends of 0.11 and 0.16°C year-1 were observed in the surface and deep layers respectively. The salinity trend was also positive. The rise in the air temperature has probably caused the increase in surface water temperature, while advection has been of greater significance in the deep layer. The increase in salinity coincides with the more frequent occurrence of small and medium-size inflows through the Danish Straits, even though large inflows are evidently less frequent than used to be the case. The seasonal variability of temperature in the water column was analysed. The phase shift in the seasonal evolution with depth is described. The maximum temperature shift in the waters investigated varies from 32 to 38 days.

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Spectral dependence of the correlation between the backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured in the southern Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(3), pp. 355-367

Włodzimierz Freda
Gdynia Maritime University,
Morska 81-87, Gdynia 81-225, Poland;
e-mail: wfreda@am.gdynia.pl

keywords: volume scattering function, backscattering coefficient, Baltic Sea

Received 29 March 2012, revised 14 May 2012, accepted 17 May 2012.


Direct measurements of the backscattering coefficient bb require the determination of the Volume Scattering Function (VSF) and its integration over a backward hemisphere. In sea water they are difficult and are therefore carried out very rarely. That is why the backscattering coefficient is much more frequently obtained with so-called single angle scattering meters: these operate by measuring the VSF for a fixed angle region of the backward hemisphere. This article examines the spectral variability of the correlation between directly measured backscattering coefficients and VSFs. Also presented are the averaged slopes of VSF spectra, measured in southern Baltic waters over a wide range of scattering angles.

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A statistical approach to coastal upwelling in the Baltic Sea based on the analysis of satellite data for 1990-2009
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(3), pp. 369-393

Andreas Lehmann1,*, Kai Myrberg2,3, Katharina Höflich1
1 Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel,
Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany;
e-mail: alehmann@geomar.de
*corresponding author
2 Finnish Environment Institute/Marine Research Centre,
Mechelininkatu 34a, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland;
3 Department of Geophysics, Klaipeda University,
Herkaus Manto 84, LT-92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania;

keywords: Baltic Sea, upwelling, sea surface temperature, modelling

Received 8 December 2011, revised 3 April 2012, accepted 7 May 2012.


A statistical analysis of Baltic Sea upwelling has been carried out to cover, for the first time, the entire sea area for the period 1990-2009. Weekly composite SST maps based on NOAA/AVHRR satellite data were used to evaluate the location and frequency of upwelling. The results obtained were analysed and compared with earlier studies with excellent agreement. Our study enables the most intense upwelling areas in the entire Baltic Sea to be evaluated. According to the analysis of 443 SST maps, the most common upwelling regions are found off the Swedish south and east coasts (frequency 10-25%), the Swedish coast of the Bothnian Bay (16%), the southern tip of Gotland (up to 15%), and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland (up to 15%). Pronounced upwelling also occurs off the Estonian coast and the Baltic east coast (up to 15%), the Polish coast and the west coast of Rügen (10-15%); otherwise the upwelling frequency was between 5 and 10%. Additionally, simulated SST distributions derived from a Baltic Sea numerical model were analysed for the same period. Furthermore, at specific positions close to the coastline, surface winds based on the SMHI meteorological data base were analysed for the same 20-year period. Wind components parallel to the coast were discriminated into favourable and unfavourable winds forcing upwelling. The obtained frequencies of upwelling-favourable winds fit very well the observed upwelling frequencies derived from satellite SST maps. A positive trend of upwelling frequencies along the Swedish east coast and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland was calculated for the period 1990-2009.

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Monitoring the effect of upwelling on the chlorophyll a distribution in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) using remote sensing and in situ data
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(3), pp. 395-419

Rivo Uiboupin*, Jaan Laanemets, Liis Sipelgas, Laura Raag, Inga Lips
Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn University of Technology,
Akadeemia 15a, Tallinn 12618, Estonia;
e-mail: rivo.uiboupin@msi.ttu.ee
*corresponding author

keywords: MERIS, MODIS, upwelling, chlorophyll a, SST, Baltic Sea, Gulf of Finland

Received 12 March 2012, revised 17 April 2012, accepted 8 May 2012.

The study was supported by the Estonian Science Foundation (grants No. 7467, No. 6752, No. 7633, No. 7581 & No. 8968). The remote sensing data were provided by ESA via Cat-1 project No. 6855.


The spatio-temporal variability of chlorophyl a (Chl a) caused by a sequence of upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland in July-August 2006 was studied using remote sensing data and field measurements. Spatial distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) and Chl a concentration were examined using MODIS and MERIS data respectively. The MERIS data were processed with an algorithm developed by the Free University of Berlin (FUB) for case 2 waters. Evaluation of MERIS Chl a versus in situ Chl a showed good correlation (r2 = 0.67), but the concentration was underestimated. The linear regression for a 2 h window was applied to calibrate MERIS Chl a. The spatio-temporal variability exhibited the clear influence of upwelling events and related filaments on Chl a distribution in the western and central Gulf. The lowest Chl a concentrations were recorded in the upwelled water, especially at the upwelling centres, and the highest concentrations (13 mg m-3) were observed about two weeks after the upwelling peak along the northern coast. The areas along the northern coast of upwelled water (4879 km2) on the SST map, and increased Chl a (5526 km2) two weeks later, were roughly coincident. The effect of upwelling events was weak in the eastern part of the Gulf, where Chl a concentration was relatively consistent throughout this period.

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Lips I., Lips U., 2008, Abiotic factors influencing cyanobacterial bloom development in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea), Hydrobiologia, 614 (1), 133-140, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-008-9449-2

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Currents and waves in the northern Gulf of Riga: measurement and long-term hindcast
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(3), pp. 421-447

Ülo Suursaar*, Tiit Kullas, Robert Aps
Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu,
Mäealuse 14, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia;
e-mail: ulo.suursaar@ut.ee
*corresponding author

keywords: hydrodynamic modelling, water exchange, wave hindcast, wind climate, RDCP, Baltic Sea

Received 27 February 2012, revised 19 April 2012, accepted 30 April 2012.

The study was supported by the Estonian target financed project 0104s08, the Estonian Science Foundation grant No 8980 and by the EstKliima project of the European Regional Fund programme No 3.2.0802.11-0043.


Based on measurements of waves and currents obtained for a period of 302 days with a bottom-mounted RDCP (Recording Doppler Current Profiler) at two differently exposed locations, a model for significant wave height was calibrated separately for those locations; in addition, the Gulf of Riga-Väinameri 2D model was validated, and the hydrodynamic conditions were studied. Using wind forcing data from the Kihnu meteorological station, a set of current, water exchange and wave hindcasts were obtained for the period 1966-2011. Current patterns in the Gulf and in the straits were wind-dependent with characteristic wind switch directions. The Matsi coast was prone to upwelling in persistent northerly wind conditions. During the hindcast period, currents increased along the Kõiguste coast and in the Suur Strait, waves decreased noticeably off Kõiguste but fluctuated without a clear linear trend near Matsi. The spatially contrasting results for differently exposed coasts were related to the corresponding variations in local wind conditions and to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns over northern Europe.

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Response of eastern Indian Ocean (ODP Site 762B) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to the closure of the Indonesian seaway
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(3), pp. 449-472

Ajai Kumar Rai*, Virendra Bahadur Singh
Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of Allahabad,
Allahabad-211002, India;
e-mail: raikajai@gmail.com
*corresponding author

keywords: Indian Ocean, benthic foraminifera, Indonesian seaway, productivity, upwelling

Received 8 December 2011, revised 3 April 2012, accepted 7 May 2012.


Pliocene-Pleistocene deep sea benthic foraminifera from ODP Site 762B in the eastern Indian Ocean were examined to understand the tectonically/climatically induced palaeoceanographic changes. In addition to already published data on this site by Rai & Singh (2001), some more faunal parameters were considered in the present work. Characteristic benthic foraminiferal assemblages as well as more diverse fauna during the early Pliocene (before 3.5 Ma) reflected relatively oligotrophic and warm bottom water conditions. At the beginning of the late Pliocene (i.e. ~3 ± 0.5 Ma) relative abundances of Uvigerina proboscidea, infaunal taxa and high productivity taxa increased, whereas faunal diversity showed a distinct decline, suggesting the development of pronounced upwelling resulting in higher surface water productivity. The strongly reduced inflow of warm and oligotrophic water masses as the South Equatorial Current (SEC) from the South Pacific to the eastern Indian Ocean due to the effective closure of the Indonesian seaway increased the surface water productivity. The closing of the Indonesian seaway during the late Pliocene was also responsible for the cessation of the warm, southward-flowing Leeuwin Current (LC) and the greater influence of the cold, deep and northward-flowing Western Australian Current (WAC) in the eastern Indian Ocean.

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Vertical distribution of zooplankton in the epipelagic zone off Sharm El-Sheikh, Red Sea, Egypt
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(3), pp. 473-489

Mohamed Moussa Dorgham1,*, Mohsen Mohamed Elsherbiny2,3, Mahnoud Hassan Hanafi2
1 Department of Oceanography, University of Alexandria,
Alexandria, 21511, Egypt;
e-mail: mdorgham1947@yahoo.com
*corresponding author
2 Department of Marine Sciences, University of Suez Canal,
Ismaelia, 41522, Egypt
3 Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University,
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;
e-mail: ooomar@kau.edu.sa

keywords: hydrography, copepods, Red Sea plankton, Sharm EL-Sheikh plankton, zooplankton dynamics, epipelagic zone, vertical plankton, Chaetognatha, Appendicularia

Received 4 August 2011, revised 18 April 2012, accepted 22 May 2012.


The purpose of the present study was to track the seasonal vertical distribution of zooplankton abundance in the epipelagic zone off Sharm El-Sheikh, Red Sea. Zooplankton samples were collected seasonally within the depth ranges of 0-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-100 m at a single station off Sharm El-Sheikh City. The present study is a trial to expand knowledge about the structure as well as the vertical distribution of the epipelagic zooplankton community in the Gulf of Aqaba in general and in its southern part in particular. The results indicate the occurrence of 52 copepod species and several species of other planktonic groups in the study area; the zooplankton standing crop fluctuated between 1124 and 4952 organisms m-3. Copepods appeared to be the predominant component, forming an average of 86.5% of the total zooplankton count, and with other groups demonstrated a markedly different seasonal vertical distribution. Twelve bathypelagic copepod species were reported during the present study, and five species were new to the area, having migrated northwards from the main basin of the Red Sea.

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Mapping an ecosystem service: A quantitative approach to derive fish feeding ground maps
Oceanologia 2012, no. 54(3), pp. 491-505

Andrius Šiaulys1,*, Darius Daunys1, Martynas Bučas1, Egidijus Bacevičius1,2
1 Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Klaipėda University,
Herkaus Manto 84, Klaipėda 92294, Lithuania;
e-mail: andrius@corpi.ku.lt
*corresponding author
2 Fisheries Service under the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Lithuania,
Division of Fisheries Research and Science,
Smiltynės Str. 1/1, Klaipėda 91001, Lithuania

keywords: Seabed quality, macrozoobenthos, fish diet, modelling, random forests, Baltic Sea

Received 13 March 2012, revised 17 May 2012, accepted 25 May 2012.

This study was supported by Norwegian Financial Mechanism (project No. LT0047) and BONUS PREHAB.


This study presents a quantitative approach to mapping benthophagous fish feeding grounds. This approach combines the spatial biomass distribution of benthic prey items and their importance for the diets of predators. A point based biomass data of macrozoobenthos together with a set of environmental factors was used to develop Random Forests models that produce continuous biomass distribution layers for individual prey species. Depending on the diet composition and the importance of prey for fish feeding, these layers are overlaid and an integrated GIS map of the seabed showing the quality of feeding grounds is generated. These maps provide a useful basis for conservation and marine spatial planning. In addition, this method could be applied to the mapping of resources used by other benthophagous organisms. The method is presented using the example of three common Baltic fish species: cod, flounder and viviparous eelpout.

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