Oceanologia No. 53 (4) / 11


Contents


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Papers



SatBałtyk - A Baltic environmental satellite remote sensing system - an ongoing project in Poland. Part 1: Assumptions, scope and operating range
Oceanologia 2011, no. 53(4), pp. 897-924
doi:10.5697/oc.53-4.897

Bogdan Woźniak1,3,*, Katarzyna Bradtke2, Mirosław Darecki1, Jerzy Dera1, Joanna Dudzińska-Nowak4, Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka1, Dariusz Ficek3, Kazimierz Furmańczyk4, Marek Kowalewski2, Adam Krężel2, Roman Majchrowski3, Mirosława Ostrowska1, Marcin Paszkuta2, Joanna Stoń-Egiert1, Małgorzata Stramska1,4, Tomasz Zapadka3
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: wozniak@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, Gdynia 81-378, Poland
3Institute of Physics, Pomeranian University in Słupsk,
Arciszewskiego 22B, Słupsk 76-200, Poland
4Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, University of Szczecin,
Mickiewicza 18, Szczecin 70-383, Poland

keywords: Marine optics in Poland, satellite monitoring, remote sensing system, Baltic Sea

Received 23 August 2011, revised 25 October 2011, accepted 1 November 2011.

This work was carried out within the framework of the SatBałtyk project funded by the European Union through European Regional Development Fund, (contract No. POIG.01.01.02-22-011/09 entitled "The Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment") and also as a part of IO PAS's statutory research.
The paper was presented in part at the 6th International Conference "Current Problems in the Optics of Natural Waters" St. Petersburg, Russia, 6-10 September 2011.

Abstract

This article is the first of two papers on the remote sensing methods of monitoring the Baltic ecosystem, developed by a Polish team. The main aim of the five-year SatBałtyk (2010-2014) research project (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) is to prepare the technical infrastructure and set in motion operational procedures for the satellite monitoring of the Baltic environment. This system is to characterize on a routine basis the structural and functional properties of this sea on the basis of data supplied by the relevant satellites. The characterization and large-scale dissemination of the following properties of the Baltic is anticipated: the solar radiation influx to the sea's waters in various spectral intervals, energy balances of the short- and long-wave radiation at the Baltic Sea surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere over the Baltic, sea surface temperature distribution, dynamic states of the water surface, concentrations of chlorophyll a and other phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic water, distributions of algal blooms, the occurrence of upwelling events, and the characteristics of primary organic matter production and photosynthetically released oxygen in the water. It is also intended to develop and, where feasible, to implement satellite techniques for detecting slicks of petroleum derivatives and other compounds, evaluating the state of the sea's ice cover, and forecasting the hazards from current and future storms and providing evidence of their effects in the Baltic coastal zone. The ultimate objective of the project is to implement an operational system for the routine determination and dissemination on the Internet of the above-mentioned features of the Baltic in the form of distribution maps as well as plots, tables and descriptions characterizing the state of the various elements of the Baltic environment. The main sources of input data for this system will be the results of systematic recording by environmental satellites and also special-purpose ones such as TIROS N/NOAA, MSG (currently Meteosat 9), EOS/AQUA and ENVISAT. The final effects of the SatBałtyk project are to be achieved by the end of 2014, i.e. during a period of 60 months. These two papers present the results obtained during the first 15 months of the project. Part 1 of this series of articles contains the assumptions, objectives and a description of the most important stages in the history of our research, which constitute the foundation of the current project. It also discusses the way in which SatBałtyk functions and the scheme of its overall operations system. The second article (Part 2), will discuss some aspects of its practical applicability in the satellite monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem (see Woźniak et al. (2011) in this issue).

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Woźniak B., Dera J., Majchrowski R., Ficek D., Koblentz-Mishke O. I., Darecki M., 1997b, Statistical relationships between photosynthesis and abiotic conditions in the ocean – the IOPAS initial model for remote sensing application, Proc. SPIE, 3222, 516–528.

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Zapadka T., Krężel A., Woźniak B., 2008, Longwave radiation budget at the Baltic Sea surface from satellite and atmospheric model data, Oceanologia, 50 (2), 147–166.

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SatBałtyk - A Baltic environmental satellite remote sensing system - an ongoing project in Poland. Part 2: Practical applicability and preliminary results
Oceanologia 2011, no. 53(4), pp. 925-958
doi:10.5697/oc.53-4.925

Bogdan Woźniak1,3,*, Katarzyna Bradtke2, Mirosław Darecki1, Jerzy Dera1, Joanna Dudzińska-Nowak4, Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka1, Dariusz Ficek3, Kazimierz Furmańczyk4, Marek Kowalewski2, Adam Krężel2, Roman Majchrowski3, Mirosława Ostrowska1, Marcin Paszkuta2, Joanna Stoń-Egiert1, Małgorzata Stramska1,4, Tomasz Zapadka3
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: wozniak@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, Gdynia 81-378, Poland
3Institute of Physics, Pomeranian University in Słupsk,
Arciszewskiego 22B, Słupsk 76-200, Poland
4Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, University of Szczecin,
Mickiewicza 18, Szczecin 70-383, Poland

keywords: marine optics in Poland, satellite monitoring, remote sensing system, Baltic Sea

Received 23 August 2011, revised 25 October 2011, accepted 1 November 2011.

This work was carried out within the framework of the SatBałtyk project funded by the European Union through European Regional Development Fund, (contract No. POIG.01.01.02-22-011/09 entitled "The Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment") and also as a part of IO PAS's statutory research.
The paper was presented in part at the 6th International Conference "Current Problems in the Optics of Natural Waters" St. Petersburg, Russia, 6-10 September 2011.

Abstract

This paper is the second part of the description of the first stage of the SatBałtyk project's implementation. Part 1 (Woźniak et al. 2011, in this issue) presents the assumptions and objectives of SatBałtyk and describes the most important stages in the history of our research, which is the foundation of this project. It also discusses the operation and general structure of the SatBałtyk system. Part 2 addresses various aspects of the practical applicability of the SatBałtyk Operational System to Baltic ecosystem monitoring. Examples are given of the Baltic's characteristics estimated using the preliminary versions of the algorithms in this Operational System. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Monitoring results obtained with these preliminary algorithms are exemplified in the form of distribution maps of selected abiotic parameters of the Baltic, as well as structural and functional characteristics of this ecosystem governed by these parameters in the Baltic's many basins. The maps cover practically the whole area of the Baltic Sea. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps. In actual fact, the errors of these estimates are relatively small. The further practical application of this set of algorithms (to be gradually made more specific) is therefore entirely justified as the basis of the SatBałtyk system for the effective operational monitoring of the state and functioning of Baltic ecosystems. This article also outlines the plans for extending SatBałtyk to include the recording of the effects and hazards caused by current and expected storm events in the Polish coastal zone.pects of its practical applicability in the satellite monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem (see Woźniak et al. (2011) in this issue).

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Remote sensing reflectance of Pomeranian lakes and the Baltic
Oceanologia 2011, no. 53(4), pp. 959-970
doi:10.5697/oc.53-4.959

Dariusz Ficek,1,*, Tomasz Zapadka,1, Jerzy Dera2
1Institute of Physics, Pomeranian University in Słupsk,
Arciszewskiego 22B, Słupsk 76-200, Poland
2Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: ficek@apsl.edu.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: reflectance spectra, chlorophyll a concentration, suspended particulate matter, coloured dissolved organic matter, optical properties of Pomeranian lakes, Baltic Sea

Received 28 September 2011, revised 17 October 2011, accepted 24 October 2011.

The study was partially financed by MNiSW (Ministry of Science and Higher Education) as a research project N N306 066434 in the years 2008-2011. The partial support for this study was also provided by the SatBaltyk project (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) funded by the European Union from the European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

The paper was presented at the 6th International Conference "Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters", St. Petersburg, Russia, 6-10 September 2011.

Abstract

The remote sensing reflectance Rrs, concentrations of chlorophyll a and other pigments Ci, suspended particulate matter concentrations CSPM and coloured dissolved organic matter absorption coefficient aCDOM(λ) were measured in the euphotic zones of 15 Pomeranian lakes in 2007-2010. On the basis of 235 sets of data points obtained from simultaneous estimates of these quantities, we classified the lake waters into three types. The first one, with the lowest aCDOM(440 nm) (usually between 0.1 and 1.3 m-1 and chlorophyll a concentrations 1.3 < Ca < 33 mg m-3), displays a broad peak on the reflectance spectrum at 560-580 nm and resembles the shape of the remote sensing reflectance spectra usually observed in the Baltic Proper. A set of Rrs spectra from the Baltic Proper is given for comparison. The second lake water type has a very high CDOM absorption coefficient (usually aCDOM(440 nm) > 10 m-1, up to 17.4 m-1 in Lake Pyszne; it has a relatively low reflectance (Rrs < 0.001 sr-1) over the entire spectral range, and two visible reflectance spectra peaks at ca 650 and 690-710 nm. The third type of lake water represents waters with a lower CDOM absorption coefficient (usually aCDOM(440 nm) < 5 m-1) and a high chlorophyll a concentration (usually Ca > 4 mg m-3, up to 336 mg m-3 in Lake Gardno). The remote sensing reflectance spectra in these waters always exhibit three peaks (Rrs > 0.005 sr-1): a broad one at 560-580 nm, a smaller one at ca 650 nm and a well-pronounced one at 690-720 nm. These Rrs(λ) peaks correspond to the relatively low absorption of light by the various optically active components of the lake water and the considerable scattering (over the entire spectral range investigated) due to the high SPM concentrations there. The remote sensing maximum at λ ≈ 690-720 nm is higher still as a result of the natural fluorescence of chlorophyll a. Empirical relationships between the spectral reflectance band ratios at selected wavelengths and the various optically active components for these lake waters are also established: for example, the chlorophyll a concentration in surface water layer Ca = 6.432 e4.556X, where X = [max Rrs (695 ≤ λ ≤ 720) - Rrs(λ = 670)] / max Rrs (695 ≤ λ ≤ 720), and the coefficient of determination R2 = 0.95.

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Numerical modelling of POC dynamics in the southern Baltic under possible future conditions determined by nutrients, light and temperature
Oceanologia 2011, no. 53(4), pp. 971-992
doi:10.5697/oc.53-4.971

Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka*, Karol Kuliński, Anna Maciejewska, Jaromir Jakacki, Janusz Pempkowiak
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: dzierzb@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: POC modelling, phytoplankton, zooplankton, detritus

Received 2 September 2011, revised 31 October 2011, accepted 3 November 2011.

The study was financially supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (grants: N N305 111636 and N N306 404338) and Baltic-C - the BONUS funded project.

Abstract

This paper discusses predictions of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations in the southern Baltic Sea. The study is based on the one-dimensional Particulate Organic Carbon Model (1D POC), described in detail by Dzierzbicka-Głowacka et al. (2010a).
   The POC concentration is determined as the sum of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dead organic matter (detritus) concentrations. Temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass are caused by primary production, mortality, grazing by zooplankton and sinking. The zooplankton biomass is affected by ingestion, excretion, faecal production, mortality and carnivorous grazing. The changes in the pelagic detritus concentration are determined by the input of dead phytoplankton and zooplankton, the natural mortality of predators, faecal pellets, and sinks - sedimentation, zooplankton grazing and biochemical decomposition.
   The model simulations were done for selected locations in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep, Bornholm Deep and Gotland Deep) under predicted conditions characterized by changes of temperature, nutrient concentrations and light availability. The results cover the daily, monthly, seasonal and annual POC concentration patterns in the upper water layer. If the assumed trends in light, nutrients and temperature in the southern Baltic correctly predict the conditions in 2050, our calculations indicate that we can expect a two- to three-fold increase in POC concentration in late spring and a shift towards postponed maximum POC concentration. It can also be anticipated that, as a result of the increase in POC, oxygenation of the water layer beneath the halocline will decrease, while the supply of food to organisms at higher trophic levels will increase.

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Temporal changes in the concentrations of zinc and cadmium in the sedimentary strata of Nozha Hydrodrome, Alexandria, Egypt
Oceanologia 2011, no. 53(4), pp. 993-1004
doi:10.5697/oc.53-4.993

Ahmed E. Rifaat*, Hoda H.H. Ahdy
National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF),
Al Anfushi 21556, Alexandria, Egypt;
e-mail: aerifaat@yahoo.co.uk, e-mail: threeha1@yahoo.com
*corresponding author

keywords: metals, core sediment, enclosed pond, temporal change

Received 26 July 2011, revised 24 October 2011, accepted 3 November 2011.

Abstract

This study is concerned with the temporal changes in the levels of zinc and cadmium in the sediments of Nozha Hydrodrome during the past 100 years. Seven sediment core samples, covering the study area, were collected from the bottom of the Hydrodrome. A five-step sequential extraction technique was applied to determine the solid phase concentrations of zinc and cadmium. Zinc gives an idea of the quantities of sewage effluents, while cadmium provides an indication of the amounts of agricultural discharges. The vertical distribution curves show that the average total concentrations of zinc in the sediments increased at a rate of 2.5 µg g-1 y-1 from 1900 to 1950 and at 1.5 µg g-1 y-1 from 1950 to 1990. Since 1990 the zinc concentration in Nozha Hydrodrome sediments has been decreasing at 1.5 µg g-1 y-1. The average total cadmium concentration exhibits a different vertical distribution pattern: it increased at a rate of 0.42 µg g-1 y-1 from 1900 to 1950, after which it became constant from 1950 to 1970. Since 1970 it has been increasing at 0.53 µg g-1 y-1. The ongoing increase in cadmium concentrations in the sediments is due to the increase in agricultural discharges into the Hydrodrome, especially as significant amounts of phosphate fertilizers are used to nourish the soil around the Hydrodrome. The rise in cadmium concentrations since 1900 has been accompanied by a similar increase in zinc concentrations with time resulting from the discharge of untreated sewage into the Hydrodrome. In 1990 a sewerage system and sewage treatment plant came into operation, as a result of which discharges of domestic effluent into the Hydrodrome ceased. Since then the amount of zinc in sediments has been decreasing steadily.

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Spatio-temporal patterns of PAHs, PCBs and HCB in sediments of the western Barents Sea
Oceanologia 2011, no. 53(4), pp. 1005-1026
doi:10.5697/oc.53-4.1005

Agata Zaborska1,*, Jolynn Carroll2,3, Ksenia Pazdro1, Janusz Pempkowiak1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland;
e-mail: agata@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Akvaplan-niva, FRAM - High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment,
Tromsø 9296, Norway
3Department of Geology, University of Tromsø,
Dramsveien 201, Tromsø 9037, Norway

keywords: Arctic, organic contaminants, POPs, sediment accumulation

Received 10 October 2011, revised 25 October 2011, accepted 3 November 2011.

Abstract

We examine the composition and levels of organic contaminants (PAHs, PCB, HCB) in four sediment cores collected from the Barents Sea. We assess the influence of temporal variations in contaminant supplies and post-depositional reworking on contaminant distribution. Anthropogenic levels of ∑12 PAH reached 95 ng g-1, higher inventories dominated by BKF were observed at southern stations, while northern stations exhibited lower inventories with PHE as the dominant compound. The PCB composition was similar at all stations dominated by CB 101, 138 and 153. ∑7 PCB concentrations were higher at northern stations. The observed composition and spatio-temporal pattern of organic contaminants is in accordance with long-range transport supplies.

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Morphological and lithodynamic conditions in the marine coastal zone of the Vistula Spit (Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2011, no. 53(4), pp. 1027-1043
doi:10.5697/oc.53-4.1027

Jana Kobelyanskaya1,*, Valentyna P. Bobykina2,  Halina Piekarek-Jankowska 1
1Department of Marine Geology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, Gdynia 81-378, Poland;
e-mail: solnyszko@ocean.univ.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Laboratory of Coastal Systems, Atlantic Department of the P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Prospect Mira 1, Kaliningrad 236000, Russia

keywords: morphology, lithodynamics, grain size, coastal zone, nearshore, Vistula Spit, Gulf of Gdańsk

Received 1 August 2011, revised 28 September 2011, accepted 19 October 2011.

This transborder research was inspired by the Laboratory of Coastal Systems, Atlantic Department of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, by the Department of Marine Geology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk and by the system project "InnoDoktorant - Scholarships for Ph.D. students, 1st edition", co-financed by the European Union within the framework of the European Social Fund. The authors are particularly indebted to Dr B. V. Chubarenko, Dr V. L. Boldyrev, Dr V. A. Chechko, D. A. Domnin, V. Y. Kurchenko and K. V. Karmanov. The data of the winds speed and directions was supplied by the ARMAAG Foundation.

Abstract

The paper presents a lithodynamic interpretation of the Polish-Russian morphological and lithological research project along the marine coastal zone of the Vistula Spit, carried out between July and September 2008. 78.4% of the coastal zone is characterized by a balanced environment, with fractional transport of sediments as bed and suspended load. Deposition was observed in 8.2% of the study area. A dynamic environment with a deficit of bed material, local turbulences and erosive trends were found in 13.2% of the coastal zone. The critical erosive current velocities vary from 16 to 20-26 cm s-1.

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