Oceanologia No. 52 (2) / 10

Guest Editor: Tiit Kutser (Estonian Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn)







Underwater light field and spectral distribution of attenuation depth in inland and coastal waters
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 155-170

Tuuli Kauer1,2,*, Helgi Arst1, Lea Tuvikene3
1Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu,
Mäealuse St. 14, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia
2Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tallinn University,
Narva Rd. 25, EE-10120 Tallinn, Estonia;
e-mail: tuulikauer@ut.ee
*corresponding author
3Centre for Limnology, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,
Estonian University of Life Sciences,
EE-61117 Rannu, Tartumaa, Estonia

keywords: underwater light field, attenuation depth, modelling

Received 21 September 2009, revised 12 January 2010, accepted 25 January 2010.

    This paper was presented at the Remote Sensing and Water Optics Workshop of the 7th Baltic Sea Science Congress, August 2009, Tallinn, Estonia.


The daily variations in the underwater irradiance spectra at different depths were determined using a combination of in situ data and model calculations. The spectra of the attenuation depth (relevant in optical remote sensing) were derived from these data. The results are presented for four Estonian lakes (Koorküla Valgjärv, Võrtsjärv, Harku, and Peipsi) and for coastal waters of the Baltic Sea (Pärnu Bay, Gulf of Riga).

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Validation of empirical and semi-analytical remote sensing algorithms for estimating absorption by Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter in the Baltic Sea from SeaWiFS and MODIS imagery
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 171-196

Piotr Kowalczuk*, Mirosław Darecki, Monika Zabłocka, Izabela Górecka
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Science,
ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: piotr@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: remote sensing, ocean colour, satellite validation, SeaWiFS, MODIS, coloured dissolved organic matter, absorption

Received 18 November 2009, revised 7 April 2010, accepted 12 April 2010.

    This paper was presented at the Remote Sensing and Water Optics Workshop of the 7th Baltic Sea Science Congress, August 2009, Tallinn, Estonia.
    This study was funded by Statutory Research Programme No. II.5 at the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland and by research grant No. N N306 294233 awarded to PK by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.


An extensive bio-optical data set obtained from field measurements was used to evaluate the performance of an empirical (Kowalczuk et al. 2005) and two semi-analytical algorithms: Carder et al. (1999) and GSM01 (Maritorena et al. 2002) for estimating CDOM absorption in the Baltic Sea. The data set includes coincident measurements of radiometric quantities and absorption coefficients of CDOM made during 43 cruises between 2000 and 2008. In the first stage of the analysis, the accuracy of the empirical algorithm by Kowalczuk et al. (2005) was assessed using in situ measurements of remote sensing reflectance. Validation results improved when matching points located in Gulf of Gdańsk close to the Vistula River mouth were eliminated from the data set. The calculated errors in the estimation of aCDOM(400) in the first phase of the analysis were Bias = -0.02, RMSE = 0.46 and R2 = 0.70. In the second stage, the empirical algorithm was tested on satellite data from SeaWiFS and MODIS imagery. The satellite data were corrected atmospherically with the MUMM algorithm designed for turbid coastal and inland waters and implemented in the SeaDAS software. The results of the best case scenario for estimating the CDOM absorption coefficient aCDOM(400), based on SeaWiFS data, were Bias = -0.02, RMSE = 0.23 and R2 = 0.40. The validation of the Kowalczuk et al. (2005) empirical algorithm applied to MODIS data led to a less accurate estimate of aCDOM(400): Bias = -0.03, RMSE = 0.19 and R2 = 0.29. This assessment of the accuracy of standard semi-analytical algorithms available in the SeaWiFS and MODIS imagery processing software revealed that both algorithms (GSM_01 and Carder) underestimate CDOM absorption in the Baltic Sea with mean systematic and random errors in excess of 70%. The paper presents examples of the application of the Kowalczuk et al. (2005) empirical algorithm for producing maps of the seasonal distribution of aCDOM(400) in the Baltic Sea between 2004 and 2008.

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In situ measurements and satellite remote sensing of case 2 waters: first results from the Curonian Lagoon
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 197-210

Claudia Giardino1,*, Mariano Bresciani1, Renata Pilkaitytė2, Marco Bartoli3, Artūras Razinkovas2
1Optical Remote Sensing Group, CNR-IREA,
via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy;
e-mail: giardino.c@irea.cnr.it
*corresponding author
2Coastal Research and Planning Institute, University of Klaipeda,
H. Manto 84, LT-92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania
3Environmental Science Department, University of Parma,
viale G. P. Usberti 33/A, 43100 Parma, Italy

keywords: satellite images, lagoon, eutrophication

Received 18 September 2009, revised 19 February 2010, accepted 8 April 2010.

    This paper was presented at the Remote Sensing and Water Optics Workshop of the 7th Baltic Sea Science Congress, August 2009, Tallinn, Estonia.


In this study we present calibration/validation activities associated with satellite MERIS image processing and aimed at estimating chl a and CDOM in the Curonian Lagoon. Field data were used to validate the performances of two atmospheric correction algorithms, to build a band-ratio algorithm for chl a and to validate MERIS-derived maps. The neural network-based Case 2 Regional processor was found suitable for mapping CDOM; for chl a the band-ratio algorithm applied to image data corrected with the 6S code was found more appropriate. Maps were in agreement with in situ measurements. This study confirmed the importance of atmospheric correction to estimate water quality and demonstrated the usefulness of MERIS in investigating eutrophic aquatic ecosystems.

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Improvement of MERIS level 2 products in Baltic Sea coastal areas by applying the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land processor (ICOL) - data analysis and validation
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 211-236

Susanne Kratzer1, Christian Vinterhav2
1Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University,
Svante Arrheniusvägen 21 A, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
2Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University,
Svante Arrheniusvägen 21 A, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden

keywords: MERIS full resolution data, optical case 2 waters, adjacency effect, algorithm development, MERIS standard processor, FUB processor, C2R processor

Received 5 October 2009, revised 3 February 2010, accepted 22 April 2010.

    This paper was presented at the Remote Sensing and Water Optics Workshop of the 7th Baltic Sea Science Congress, August 2009, Tallinn, Estonia.


    In this paper we compare the following MERIS processors against sea-truthing data: the standard MERIS processor (MEGS 7.4.1), the Case 2 Regional processor (C2R) of the German Institute for Coastal Research (GKSS), and the Case 2 Water Properties processor developed at the Freie Universität Berlin (FUB). Furthermore, the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land processor (ICOL), a prototype processor for the correction of adjacency effects from land, was tested on all three processors, and the retrieval of level 2 data was evaluated against sea-truthing data before and after ICOL processing.
    The results show that by using ICOL the retrieval of spectral reflectance in the open sea was improved for all processors. After ICOL processing, the FUB showed rather small errors in the blue, but underestimated in the red -34% Mean Normalised Bias (MNB) and 37% Root Mean Square (RMS). For MEGS the reflectance in the red was underestimated by about -20% MNB and 23% RMS, whereas the reflectance in the other channels was well predicted, even without any ICOL processing. The C2R underestimated the red with about -27% MNB and 29% RMS and at 412 nm it overestimated the reflectance with about 23% MNB and 29% RMS. At the outer open sea stations ICOL processing did not have a strong effect: the effect of the processor diminishes progressively up to 30 km from land.
    At the open sea stations the ICOL processor improved chlorophyll retrieval using MEGS from -74% to about 34% MNB, and TSM retrieval from -63% to about 22% MNB. Using FUB in combination with ICOL gave even better results for both chlorophyll (25% MNB and 45% RMS) and TSM (-4% MNB and 36% RMS) in the open Baltic Sea. All three processors predicted TSM rather well, but the standard processor gave the best results (-12% MNB and 17% RMS). The C2R had a very low MNB for TSM (1%), but a rather high RMS (54%). The FUB was intermediate with -16% MNB and 31% RMS.
    In coastal waters, the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd(490) was well predicted using FUB or MEGS in combination with ICOL (MNB about 12% for FUB and 0.4% for MEGS). Chlorophyll was rather well predicted in the open Baltic Sea using FUB with ICOL (MNB 25%) and even without ICOL processing (MNB about 15%). ICOL-processed MEGS data also gave rather good retrieval of chlorophyll in the coastal areas (MNB of 19% and RMS of 28%). In the open Baltic Sea chlorophyll retrieval gave a MNB of 34% and RMS of 70%, which may be due to the considerable patchiness caused by cyanobacterial blooms.
    The results presented here indicate that with the MERIS mission, ESA and co-workers are in the process of solving some of the main issues regarding the remote sensing of coastal waters: spatial resolution; land-water adjacency effects; improved level 2 product retrieval in the Baltic Sea, i.e. the retrieval of spectral reflectance and of the water quality products TSM and chlorophyll.

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Detecting cyanobacterial blooms in large North European lakes using the Maximum Chlorophyll Index
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 237-257

Krista Alikas1,*, Kersti Kangro2, Anu Reinart1
1Tartu Observatory,
EE-61602, Tõravere, Tartumaa, Estonia;
e-mail: alikas@ut.ee
*corresponding author
2Centre for Limnology, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,
Estonian University of Life Sciences,
EE-61117 Rannu, Tartumaa, Estonia

keywords: MERIS, Maximum Chlorophyll Index, phytoplankton, cyanobacteria, chlorophyll a

Received 8 October 2009, revised 16 April 2010, accepted 17 April 2010.

    This paper was presented at the Remote Sensing and Water Optics Workshop of the 7th Baltic Sea Science Congress, August 2009, Tallinn, Estonia.


The Maximum Chlorophyll Index (MCI), developed for the MERIS sensor processing scheme, is used to investigate the seasonal dynamics, spatial distribution, and coverage of cyanobacterial blooms over Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia) and Lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia). In these optically complex waters, the amounts of suspended matter and dissolved organic matter vary greatly and independently of the phytoplankton biomass. We demonstrate that MCI is a useful, new tool for detecting and estimating cyanobacterial biomass (R2 = 0.73), phytoplankton biomass (R2 = 0.70) and chlorophyll a concentration (R2 = 0.64). The MCI-derived results are consistent with known patterns of phytoplankton dynamics in these lakes, whose optical properties are in the same range as in many coastal regions of the Baltic Sea.

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Can fluctuating asymmetry in Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) populations be used as a bioindicator of stress on sandy beach ecosystems?
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 259-280

Ottavio Ottaviano, Felicita Scapini
Department of Evolutionary Biology "Leo Pardi", University of Florence,
Via Romana 17, IT-50125 Florence, Italy;
e-mail: ottavio.ottaviano@unifi.it
e-mail: scapini@unifi.it

keywords: Amphipoda, Talitrus saltator, development, fluctuating asymmetry, sandy beaches

Received 21 December 2009, revised 6 May 2010, accepted 11 May 2010.


This study focused on verifying the fluctuating asymmetry hypothesis in the crustacean Talitrus saltator, which lives in sandy beaches. We analysed three populations, one from an unpolluted Tuscan beach relatively free of tourism, and two from Sicilian beaches, which have been increasingly used for tourism and have been exposed to hydrocarbon/pesticide pollution. Results confirmed the sexual dimorphism in the second antennae flagella, which in the Tuscan population presented directional asymmetry. This population had a significant level of fluctuating asymmetry in the P6 and P3 meri. The results showed the importance of the developmental stage during which environmental mechanical stresses act.

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Energy values and energy resources of two prawns in Baltic coastal waters: the indigenous Palaemon adspersus and the non-indigenous Palaemon elegans
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 281-297

Urszula Janas*, Olimpia Bruska
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: oceuj@ug.gda.pl
*corresponding author

keywords: Palaemon elegans, Palaemon adspersus, non-indigenous species, energy value, energy resources, food item, Baltic Sea

Received 6 October 2009, revised 19 April 2010, accepted 22 April 2010.


Until recently only two palaemonid species inhabited the southern Baltic: Palaemon adspersus and Palaemonetes varians. Soon after the year 2000 a new species - Palaemon elegans - arrived and quickly established itself as a new component in the trophic web. The objects of this research were to define the energy value and energy resources of P. elegans and to compare them with the corresponding values for the native P. adspersus. These parameters will supply information about this new link in the trophic web and may help to explain the part played by the new prawn and its population in the energy flow. This work demonstrated that the energy values of both prawn species were very much the same: the average energy value of P. elegans was 16.5±2.1 J mg-1 DW (19.3±2.5 J mg-1AFDW) (N = 150), that of P. adspersus was 16.7±2.1 J mg-1 DW (19.5± 2.5 J mg-1 AFDW) (N = 71). No statistically significant differences in energy value were found between the two species with respect to sex, size or season. The results show that P. elegans is an energetically valuable food item for predators. Its energy resources in Polish brackish coastal waters can be as high as 150 kJ m-2; the highest among the palaemonid species in this habitat, they constitute a rich supply of food for other organisms.

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Geostrophic current patterns off the Egyptian Mediterranean coast
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 299-310

Mohamed Salama Kamel
National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries,
Kayt-Bay, Alexandria, Egypt;
e-mail: mskamela@yahoo.com

keywords: Egypt, Mediterranean, geostrophic current circulation

Received 4 January 2010, revised 7 May 2010, accepted 13 May 2010.


Using objectively analysed hydrographic data, currents have been calculated off the Egyptian Mediterranean coast at the surface and at 30, 50, 75, 100, 200 and 300 m depths for the four seasons.
    The surface circulation is dominated by an anticyclonic circulation off Salum Bay in winter, spring and summer. In nearshore areas, the current flows eastwards at the shallower levels but westwards at the deeper levels.
    Off the Nile Delta, the current is almost eastward with a higher velocity in summer and autumn, while in spring it is very weak. Off the area between Port Said and Rafah, there is a clear cyclonic circulation appearing in all seasons except winter. At 50 and 75 m depth, the velocity of the circulation is weak. At 100 m depth, the circulation that appeared between Matruh and Alamen in summer decreases in area and magnitude at the former depths.
    At 200 and 300 m in winter, the current velocity is quite low. In spring the current flows southwards off the area between Rafah and Port Said. In summer, the current off the area between Port Said and Rafah is quite strong and flows to the south. The situation in autumn is quite similar to that in summer, except in the eastern area, where the current is a westward one.

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Report on the development of the Vistula river plume in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk during the May 2010 flood
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 311-317

Marek Zajączkowski1,*, Mirosław Darecki1, Witold Szczuciński2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: trapper@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University,
Maków Polnych 16, PL-61-606 Poznań, Poland

keywords: River Vistula, Gulf of Gdańsk, flood, river plume

Received 7 June 2010, revised 11 June 2010, accepted 14 June 2010.


The hydrological conditions, suspended matter concentrations and vertical particulate matter flux were measured as the River Vistula flood wave (maximum discharge) was flowing into the southern part of the Gulf of Gdańsk on 26 May 2010. Extending offshore for several tens of kilometres, the river plume was well stratified, with the upper layer flowing away from the shore and the near-bottom water coastwards.

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Pruszak Z., van Ninh P., Szmytkiewicz M., Ostrowski R., 2005, Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta), Oceanologia, 47 (3), 365-385.

Zajączkowski M., 2002, On the use of sediment traps in sedimentation measurements in glaciated fjords, Pol. Polar Res., 23 (2), 161-174.

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The SatBałtyk project: Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 319-324

Jerzy Dera

SatBaltic logo Marine research in Poland has a long tradition. The first purpose-built laboratories were founded in the 1920s on the Hel Peninsula and in Gdynia. After World War II a number of large, dynamically developing marine science institutes came into existence (Dera et al. 2007). One of these is the Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Dera 2003), where marine optics, one of several disciplines practised at the Institute, has been able to flourish; today, it is of fundamental importance in remote sensing techniques for monitoring the marine environment. The first research to be carried out in this field at the Institute investigated the optical properties of the constituents of sea water, their influence on underwater visibility and the structure of the underwater light field. This research was later extended to the various processes in the sea that are stimulated by sunlight, especially the photosynthesis of organic matter in marine algae. Concurrently, more or less since the mid-1990s, great emphasis has been placed on the development of bio-optical modelling and remote optical means of investigating the functioning of marine ecosystems, particularly those based on satellite observations. The synthesis of these several branches of optical research led to the development, in 2001-2005, of the comprehensive DESAMBEM8,9 algorithm, which enables Baltic ecosystems to be monitored from space. This will now be discussed in greater detail.(...)

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Atlantic Water in the Nordic Seas - properties, variability, climatic significance
Oceanologia 2010, 52(2), 325-327

Waldemar Walczowski
Physical Oceanography Department, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: walczows@iopan.gda.pl

Post-doctoral (habilitation) thesis in the Earth Sciences.

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