Oceanologia No. 51 (2 ) / 09


Contents


Papers


Dissertations


Papers



Warming of the West Spitsbergen Current and sea ice north of Svalbard
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(2), pp 147-164
doi:10.5697/oc.51-2.147


Jan Piechura, Waldemar Walczowski*
Physical Oceanography Department,
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: walczows@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: Nordic Seas, ocean circulation, sea ice, climate change

Received 12 March 2009, revised 18 May 2009, accepted 20 April 2009.

This research was supported by a grant from the Fifth European Union Frame-work Programme project ASOF-N, contract EVK2-CT-200200139, the Sixth Frame-work Programme DAMOCLES, contract 018509GOCE, and grants from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, decisions 61/N-IPY/2007/0 and 175/IPY/2007/01.
Abstract
According to the results of recent research, besides the atmospheric circulation, it is heat transport to the Arctic Ocean (AO) by ocean currents, the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) in particular, that is playing a significant role in the process of Arctic warming. Data collected by the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences (IO PAS), in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas, and Fram Strait during the last 20 years reveal considerable changes in the amount of heat transported by the WSC into the Arctic Ocean. An increase in Atlantic Water (AW) temperature and the intensification of heat transport were observed in 2004-06; after this period, both parameters decreased. The aim of this study was to find out whether the fluctuations in heat input by the WSC have influenced the sea-ice distribution around Svalbard. In fact they do, but oceanic heat transport should nonetheless be regarded as just one of many processes influencing sea-ice behaviour.

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Polyakov I. V., Beszczynska A., Carmack E. C., Dmitrenko I. A., Fahrbach E., Frolov I. E., Gerdes R., Hansen E., Holfort J., Ivanov V. V., Johnson M. A., Karcher M., Kaker F., Morison J., Orvik K. A., SchaerU., Simmons H. L., Skagseth O., Sokolov V. T., Steele M., Timokhov L. A., Walsh D., Walsh J. E., 2005, One more step toward a warmer Arctic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17605, doi:10.1029/2005GL023740. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023740

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Schauer U., Beszczynska-Moeller A., Walczowski W., Fahrbach E., Piechura J., Hansen E., 2008, Variation of measured heat flow through the Fram Strait between 1997 and 2006, [in:] Arctic-Subarctic ocean fluxes , R. R. Dickson, I. Meincke & P. Rhines (eds.), Springer, Dordrecht, 15-43.

Skagseth Ø., Orvik K. A., Furevik T., 2004, Coherent variability of the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current derived from TOPEX/ERS altimeter data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L14304,doi:10.1029/2004GL020057.

Spreen G., Kaleschke L., Heygster G., 2008, Sea ice remote sensing using AMSR-E 89-GHz channels, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C02S03, doi:10.1029/2005JC003384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003384

Walczowski W., 2009, Woda Arktyczna w Morzach Nordyckich - właściwośći, zmienność, znaczenie klimatyczne, Rozpr. monogr. 22, Inst. Oceanol. PAN, Sopot, 241 pp.

Walczowski W., Piechura J., 2006, New evidence of warming propagating toward the Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L12601, doi:10.1029/2006GL025872. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL025872

Walczowski W., Piechura J., 2007, Pathways of the Greenland Sea warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L10608, doi:10.1029/2007GL029974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029974

Walczowski W., Piechura J., Osiński R., Wieczorek P., 2005, The West Spitsbergen Current volume and heat transport from synoptic observations in summer, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 52 (8), 1374-1931. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2005.03.009

Whelan J., Maslowski W., Clement Kinney J. L., Jakacki J., 2007, Understanding recent variability in the Arctic Sea ice thickness and volume-synthesis of model results and observations, Eos Trans. AGU, 88 (52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract C22A-06.

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Parameterisation of a population model for Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea. Part 1. Development time
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(2), pp.165-184
doi:10.5697/oc.51-2.165


Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka1,*, Anna Lemieszek2, Maria Iwona Żmijewska2
1Physical Oceanography Department,
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: dzierzb@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

2Institute of Oceanography,
University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland

Keywords: population model, growth, development, Acartia spp., Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea)

Received 18 March 2009, revised 19 May 2009, accepted 22 May 2009.

This research was carried out in support of grant No. NN306 181537.
Abstract
The copepod model (see Dzierzbicka-Głowacka 2005b), reduced to a zero-dimensional population model (Fennel 2001, Stegert et al. 2007), is calibrated for Acartia spp. under the environmental conditions typical of the southern Baltic Sea. Most of the coefficients used in the model are taken from the literature, containing values from various published studies and parameters derived for similar species. The parameters for growth are presented in Part 1; those for population dynamics are given in Part 2. Ingestion rates, which are dependent on developmental stage, food supply, temperature and weight of the animals, are estimated for Acartia bifilosa at 15°C from the Gdańsk Deep after the experimental data of Ciszewski & Witek (1977). In Part 1 the model presents the change in mean individual mass in successive stages. Quantitative formulae are obtained describing the effects of temperature and food concentration on the development time of Acartia spp. for each of the model stage groups. The generation time during the seasons in the upper layer of the Gdańsk Deep is also determined. The simulations computed here are similar to the experimental results. Part 2 (Dzierzbicka-Głowacka et al. 2009 - this issue) will evaluate egg production as a function of the above-mentioned parameters, temperature and food availability.

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Dzierzbicka-Głowacka L., 2005a, A numerical investigation of phytoplankton and Pseudocalanus longatus dynamics in th spring bloom tim in th Gdańsk Gulf, J. Marine Syst., 53 (1-4), 19-36.

Dzierzbicka-Głowacka L., 2005b, Modelling the s asonal dynamics of marin plankton in th southern Baltic Sea. Part 1. A Coupled Ecosystem Model, Oceanologia, 47 (4), 591-619.

Dzierzbicka-Głowacka L., 2006, Modelling the s asonal dynamics of marin plankton in th southern Baltic Sea. Part 2. Numerical simulations, Oceanologia, 48 (1), 41-71.

Dzierzbicka-Głowacka L., Bielecka L., Mudrak S., 2006, Seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep)– numerical simulations, Biogeosciences, 3 (4), 635-650.

Fennel W., 2001, Modelling of copepods with links to circulation model, J. Plankton Res., 23 (11), 1217-1232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plankt/23.11.1217

Kiørboe T., Mohlenberg F., Hamburger K., 1985, Bioenergetics of the planktonic copepod Acartia tonsa: relation between feeding, egg production and respiration, and composition of specific dynamic action, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 26, 85-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps026085

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Paffenhöfer G. A., Harris R. P., 1976, Feeding, growth and reproduction of the marine planktonic copepod Pseudocalanus longatus Boeck, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 56, 327-344 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400018956

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Parameterisation of a population model for Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea. Part 2. Egg production
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(2), pp.185-201
doi:10.5697/oc.51-2.185


Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka1,*, Anna Lemieszek2, Maria Iwona Żmijewska2
1Physical Oceanography Department,
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: dzierzb@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

2Institute of Oceanography,
University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland

Keywords: population model, egg production, Acartia spp., Gdańsk Deep (southern Baltic Sea)

Received 18 March 2009, revised 21 May 2009, accepted 26 May 2009.

This research was carried out in support of grant No. NN306 181537.
Abstract
The paper describes the modelling of egg production in Acartia spp. under changing environmental conditions in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep). The hypothesis (Sekiguchi et al. 1980) that the food-saturated rate of egg matter production is equivalent to specific growth rate of copepods is applied. The average number of eggs produced per day by one Acartia female is obtained as a function of growth rate, i.e. by multiplying exp gN3-1 from the growth rate of the nauplius stage equation by Wfemale / Wegg. The copepod model, reduced to a zero-dimensional population model calibrated for Acartia spp. under the environmental conditions typical of the southern Baltic Sea, was used to determine the effects of temperature and food concentration on the growth rate of each of the model stages (see Part 1 - Dzierzbicka-Głowacka et al. 2009 - this issue). In this part, egg production as a function of the above parameters is evaluated. The rate of reproduction during the seasons in the upper layer of the Gdańsk Deep is also determined.

  References ref

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Toxic cyanobacteria blooms in the Lithuanian part of the Curonian Lagoon
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(2), pp.203-216
doi:10.5697/oc.51-2.203


Aistė Paldavičienė1,*, Hanna Mazur-Marzec2, Artūras Razinkovas1
1Coastal Research and Planning Institute,
University of Klaipėda,
H. Manto 84, LT-92294, Klaipėda, Lithuania;
e-mail: aiste@corpi.ku.lt
*corresponding author
2Department of Marine Biology and Ecology,
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: biohm@univ.gda.pl

Keywords: cyanobacteria, microcystins, nodularin, Curonian Lagoon, Lithuania

Received 10 February 2009, revised 30 April 2009, accepted 4 May 2009.
Abstract
The phenomenon of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms in the Baltic and the surrounding freshwater bodies has been known for several decades. The presence of cyanobacterial toxic metabolites in the Curonian Lagoon has been investigated and demonstrated for the first time in this work (2006-2007). Microcystis aeruginosa was the most common and widely distributed species in the 2006 blooms. Nodularia spumigena was present in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon, following the intrusion of brackish water from the Baltic Sea; this is the first time that this nodularin-(NOD)-producing cyanobacterium has been recorded in the lagoon. With the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), four microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-LY, MC-YR) and nodularin were detected in 2006. The presence of these cyanobacterial hepatotoxic cyclic peptides was additionally confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PP1). Microcystin-LR, the most frequent of them, was present in every sample at quite high concentrations (from <0.1 to 134.2 µg dm-3). In 2007, no cyanobacterial bloom was recorded and cyanotoxins were detected in only 4% of the investigated samples. A comparably high concentration of nodularin was detected in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon. In one sample dimethylated MC-RR was also detected (concentration 7.5 µg dm-3).

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Using chemometrics to identify water quality in Daya Bay, China
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(2), pp.217-232
doi:10.5697/oc.51-2.217


Mei-Lin Wu1, You-Shao Wang1,*, Cui-Ci Sun1, Haili Wang2, Zhi-Ping Lou1, Jun-De Dong1
1Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics,
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Guangzhou 510301, China;
e-mail: yswang@scsio.ac.cn
*corresponding author
2Scripps Institution of Oceanography,
University of California,
San Diego, CA 92093-0218, USA

Keywords: cluster analysis, robust principal component analysis, water quality, Daya Bay (DYB), South China Sea

Received 13 January 2009, revised 18 March 2009, accepted 20 March 2009.

This research was supported by the project of knowledge innovation program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KZCX2-YW-Q07-02 & No. KSCX2-SW-132), the project of knowledge innovation program of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (No. LYQ200701) and the National 908 project (No. 908-02-04-04).
Abstract
In this paper, chemometric approaches based on cluster analysis, classical and robust principal component analysis were employed to identify water quality in Daya Bay (DYB), China. The results show that these approaches divided water quality in DYB into two groups: stations S3, S8, S10 and S11 belong to cluster A, which lie in Dapeng Cove, Aotou Harbor and the north-eastern part of DYB, where water quality is related mainly to anthropogenic activities. The other stations belong to cluster B, which lie in the southern, central and eastern parts of DYB, where the quality is related mainly to water exchange with the South China Sea. Cluster analysis yields good results as a first exploratory method for evaluating spatial difference, but it fails to demonstrate the relationship between variables and environmental quality on the one hand and the untreated data on the other. However, with the aid of suitable chemometric approaches, the relationship between samples or variables can be investigated. Classical and robust principal component analysis can provide a visual aid for identifying the water environment in DYB, and then extracting specific information about relationships between variables and spatial variation trends in water quality.

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Factors affecting the occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(2), pp. 233-262
doi:10.5697/oc.51-2.233


Anna Filipkowska1, Ludwik Lubecki1, Małgorzata Szymczak-Żyła1, Maria Łotocka2, Grażyna Kowalewska1,*
1Marine Pollution Laboratory,
Institute of Oceanology,Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: Kowalewska@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Marine Chemistry and Biochemistry Department,
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland


Keywords: Macroalgae, Phytoplankton, Eutrophication, Beach management, Baltic Sea, Chloropigments a

Received 27 January 2009, revised 29 April 2009, accepted 9 May 2009.

This study was financed by the EU CosCo project ("Regional cycle development through coastal co-operation - sea grass and algae focus" - INTERREG IIIC 2N00251) and the statutory IO PAS programme.

Abstract
The occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach was investigated from 2004 to 2006 from the beach management point of view. Various methods were applied in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of algae on the shoreline. They included daily observations of the occurrence of macrophyta on the beach, absorption measurements of acetone extracts of the particulate matter in the seawater, the collection of macrophyta and phytoplankton samples for biomass and taxonomic identification, and determination of the degree of decomposition on the basis of chloropigment analyses. The results were related to the environmental conditions: meteorological data and the physico-chemical parameters of the seawater. The biomass recorded on the beach consisted mainly of macroalgae and a small proportion of sea grass (Zostera marina). The phytoplankton biomass consisted mainly of dinoflagellates, diatoms, cyanobacteria, euglenoids and cryptophytes.
    The conclusions to be drawn from this work are that the occurrence of huge amounts of macrophyta amassing on the Sopot beach depends on the combined effect of high solar radiation in spring and summer, high-strength (velocity × frequency) south-westerly winds in May-September, followed by northerly winds, bringing the macrophyta from Puck Bay on to the Sopot beach. At the same time, their abundance along the beach varies according to the shape and height of the shore, the wind strength and the local wind-driven seawater currents. According to estimates, from 2.2-4.4 × 102 tons (dry weight) of macrophyta can be moved on to the Sopot beach in one hour. In October, strong south-easterly winds can also transport huge amounts of decomposing biomass onshore. The phytoplankton content in the total biomass is negligible, even though at low concentrations its biological activity may be considerable. The intensive phytoplankton blooms observed on the Sopot beach in summer are not always caused by cyanobacteria.

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Mercury fluxes through the sediment water interface and bioavailability of mercury in southern Baltic Sea sediments
Oceanologia 2009, no. 51(2), pp. 263-285
doi:10.5697/oc.51-2.263


Jacek Bełdowski*, Michał Miotk, Janusz Pempkowiak
Marine Chemistry and Biochemistry Department,
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: hyron@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: Baltic Sea, bioavailability, mercury, remobilization, sediments, speciation

Received 17 February 2009, revised 13 May 2009, accepted 22 May 2009.

The study was performed under the auspices of IO PAS statutory research grant No. II.2.3//2004 II.2.3 2005 and TROIA-Net Science network.
Abstract
Sediment cores collected in several areas of the southern Baltic were analysed for total mercury (HgTOT) and five operationally defined mercury fractions: HgA - contained in pore waters, HgF - bound to fulvic acids, HgH - bound to humic acids, HgS - bound to sulphide, and HgR - residual. An effort was made to quantify mercury fluxes at the sediment/water interface in the study area. Net mercury input, calculated on the basis of sedimentation rate and concentration in the uppermost sediments, ranged from 1 to 5.5 ng cm-2 year-1. Mercury remobilisation from sediments due to diffusion and resuspension was calculated from the proportion of labile mercury and the velocity of near-bottom currents. The results showed that the return soluble and particulate fluxes of mercury from the sediments to the water column constitute a substantial proportion of the input (20-50%), and are slightly higher than those found in pristine areas, although they are less than the values recorded in areas with a history of mercury contamination. In addition, an index was developed to assess the methylation potential of mercury in sediments. Mercury contained in pore waters, and mercury bound to fulvic and humic acids together with Loss on Ignition were used to calculate the semi-quantitative methylation potential (Pm). Despite the simplicity of this approach, Pm correlates well with methyl mercury in fish from the study area.

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doi:10.5697/oc.51-2.287


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Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: maria@iopan.gda.pl


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