Oceanologia No. 51 (1) / 09






The Editor would like to thank all the reviewers who in 2008 reviewed the papers submitted to Oceanologia. We have received kind permission to print the following reviewers' names:
Dr Laura Airoldi (University of Bologna, Italy) • Dr Elena Arashkevich (P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, Moscow, Russia) • Dr Nadezhda A. Berezina (Zoological Institute RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russia) • Dr Francesco Bignami (ISAC-CNR Unità Operativa di Roma, Italy) • Prof. Janusz L. Borkowski (Institute of Geophysics PAS, Warsaw, Poland) • Dr José Luis Carballo (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mazatlán, México) • Prof. Suchana Chavanich (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand) • Prof. Alan W. Decho (University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA) • Dr Joachim W. Dippner (Leibniz-Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany) • Prof. Kay-Christian Emeis (Universität Hamburg, Germany) • Doc. Hans-Peter Fagerholm (Åbo Akademi University, Åbo Turku, Finland) • Dr Patricia Fair (Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, USA) • Prof. Kazimierz Furmańczyk (University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Robert W. Furness (University of Glasgow, UK) • Prof. Michael R. Gretz (Michigan Technological University, Houghton, USA) • Dr Jorge Guillén (Institut de Ciències del Mar, Barcelona, Spain) • Prof. Donat-P. Häder (Friedrich-Alexander Universität, Erlangen, Germany) • Dr Haakon Hop (Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway) • Prof. Krzysztof Jażdżewski (University of Łódź, Poland) • Dr Ian R. Jenkinson (Hydrosphere Biorheology Laboratory ACRO, La Roche Canillac, France) • Dr Mirosław Jonasz (MJC Optical Sensing Technology, Beaconsfield, Canada) • Dr Genrik S. Karabashev (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, Moscow, Russia) • Doc. Alicja Kosakowska (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Jonne Kotta (University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia) • Dr Peter Köpke (Universität München, Germany) • Prof. Adam Latała (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Andrzej B. Legocki (Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry PAS, Poznań, Poland) • Dr R. Gregory Lough (Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, USA) • Prof. Stanisław R. Massel (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Mirosław Miętus (University of Gdańsk, Poland, and Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Gdynia, Poland) • Dr Marco A. Molina-Montenegro (Universidad de Concepción, Chile) • Prof. Jerzy Olszewski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Andrzej Orłowski (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Sergej Olenin ({Unifob Environmental Research, affiliated to the University of Bergen, Norway, and Klaipeda University, Lithuania) • Dr Maria Antonietta Pancucci-Papadopoulou (Institute of Oceanography, Anavyssos, Greece) • Dr Jerry Payne (Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John's, NL, Canada) • Prof. Janusz Pempkowiak (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Jan Piechura (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Halina Piekarek-Jankowska (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Marcin Pliński (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Teresa Radziejewska (University of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Neil H. Ringler (SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, USA) • Prof. John Roff (Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada) • Dr Anna Rozwadowska (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Mariusz R. Sapota (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Mathilde Schapira (Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa) • Doc. Paweł Schlichtholz (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Tarmo Soomere (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia) • Prof. Dariusz Stramski (Scripps Institution of Oceanography at San Diego, La Jolla, USA) • Prof. B. Mutlu Sumer (Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark) • Prof. Piotr Szefer (Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Antoni Śliwinski (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Vidmantas Ulevicius (Institute of Physics, Vilnius, Lithuania) • Prof. Waldemar Wardencki (Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland) • Prof. Wiesław Wasiak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland) • Prof. Jan Marcin Węsławski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. C. Dieter Zander (Zoologisches Institut und Museum, Hamburg, Germany)


Ångström coefficient as an indicator of the atmospheric aerosol type for a well-mixed atmospheric boundary layer: Part 1: Model development:
Oceanologia 2009, 51(1), 5-38

Jolanta Kuśmierczyk-Michulec
The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research,
TNO, The Hague, The Netherlands;

On leave from the Institute of Oceanology,
Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland;

e-mail: jolanta.kusmierczyk@tno.nl

Keywords: Ängström coefficient, effective radius, atmospheric aerosol mixture, aerosol composition, aerosol type

Received 27 October 2008, revised 9 February 2009, accepted 18 February 2009.
The physical and optical properties of an atmospheric aerosol mixture depend on a number of factors. The relative humidity influences the size of hydroscopic particles and the effective radius of an aerosol mixture. In consequence, values of the aerosol extinction, the aerosol optical thickness and the Ängström coefficient are modified. A similar effect is observed when the aerosol composition changes. A higher content of small aerosol particles causes the effective radius of an aerosol mixture to decrease and the Ängström coefficient to increase. Both effects are analysed in this paper. The parameters of the size distribution and the type of components used to represent natural atmospheric aerosol mixtures are based on experimental data. The main components are sea-salts (SSA), anthropogenic salts (WS, e.g. NH4HSO4, NH4NO3, (NH4)2 SO4), organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC). The aerosol optical thickness is modelled using the external mixing approach. The influence of relative humidity on the optical and physical properties of the following aerosol mixtures is investigated: (SSA & WS), (SSA & OC), (SSA & BC), (SSA, WS & OC) and (WS, OC & BC). It is demonstrated that the Ängström coefficient can be used as a rough indicator of the aerosol type.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 1.4 MB

Decadal variations in wave heights off Cape Kelba, Saaremaa Island, and their relationships with changes in wind climate:
Oceanologia 2009, 51(1), 39-61

Ülo Suursaar*, Tiit Kullas
Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu,
Mäealuse 10a, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia;
e-mail: ulo.suursaar@ut.ee
*corresponding author

Keywords: wave hindcast, wave measurement, winds, storms, climate change, RDCP, Baltic Sea

Received 13 November 2008, revised 4 February 2009, accepted 9 February 2009.

This work was support by the Estonian Science Foundation through grant No. 7609.
Based on wind data from the Vilsandi meteorological station and a 5-month calibration measurement with a bottom-mounted Recording Doppler Current Profiler (RDCP), a semi-empirical hindcast of wave parameters near the quickly developing accumulative Kelba Spit is presented for the period 1966-2006. The significant wave heights with a gross mean value of 0.56 m exhibited some quasiperiodic cycles, with the last high stage in 1980-95 and a decreasing overall trend of -0.001 m per year. At the same time, both the frequency and intensity of high wave events showed rising trends, and the mean wave heights during winter (December to February) increased as well. As the study area has the longest fetches in westerly directions, the discussed tendencies in wave conditions are sensitive to regional changes in the wind climate and can be related to a decrease in the local average wind speed on the one hand, but an intensification of westerly winds, storm events and the wintertime NAO index on the other. The roughest wave storms on record were associated with prominent W-storms on 2 November 1969 and 9 January 2005; a few other extreme wind events (e.g. in 1967, 1999, 2001), however, did not yield equally prominent waves.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 540.6 kB

Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis:
Oceanologia 2009, 51(1), 63-84

Zoheïr M. Taleb*,1, Imène Benali1, Hamida Gherras1, Amina Ykhlef-Allal1, Benabdellah Bachir-Bouiadjra2, Jean-Claude Amiard3, Zitouni Boutiba1
1Réseau de Surveillance Environnementale (RSE),
Department of Biology, University of Oran Es Senia,
31000 Oran, Algeria;
e-mail: mztaleb@yahoo.fr
*corresponding author
2Department of Ressources Halieutiques et Sciences de la Mer,
Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University of Mostaganem,
27000 Mostaganem, Algeria
3Service d'Ecotoxicologie, MMS (Mer, Molécules, Santé,
Pôle Mer et Littoral, University of Nantes,
44322 Nantes Cedex 3, France

Keywords: caged mussels, lysosomal membrane stability, micronucleus, Acetylcholinesterase, Algerian west coast

Received 16 November 2008, revised 19 January 2009, accepted 9 February 2009.

This work was partially supported through a grant from the Tassili Cooperation Research Programme (project 06 MDU 692: Biosurveillance de la pollution marine au niveau du littoral occidental algérien) with the collaboration of Dr J-C. Amiard (Service d'Ecotoxicologie, MMS (Mer, Molécules, Santé, Pôle Mer et Littoral, ISOMer, Université de Nantes, France).
An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sampled from the Kristel (K) site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007) to Oran Harbour (OH) and Mostaganem Harbour (MH), areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT) method), a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN) frequency) and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) concentration).
      Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively) (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels), an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1) and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1) of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1) of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland).
      This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 443.4 KB

Determination of petroleum pollutants in coastal waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk
Oceanologia 2009, 51(1), 85-92

Adam Stelmaszewski
Physics Department, Gdynia Maritime University,
Morska 81-87, PL-81-225 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: stel@am.gdynia.pl

Keywords: fluorescence, petroleum, seawater

Received 27 June 2008, revised 7 January 2009, accepted 28 January 2009.
The paper presents an improved method of determining petroleum pollutants in water based on fluorescence, which allows the oil content to be estimated with an accuracy better than 50%. The method was used to measure the oil content in Gulf of Gdańsk seawater sampled at Gdynia-Orłowo between January 2006 and September 2008. The 174 measurements made during this period ranged from 1 to 120 µg kg-1, but the majority did not exceed 20 µg kg-1. The most probable level of contamination is c. 5 µg kg-1.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 125.8 kB

Mycosporine-like amino acids in six scleractinian coral species
Oceanologia 2009, 51(1), 93-104

Ahmad A. Al-Utaibi, Gul Raze Niaz, Sultan S. Al-Lihaibi*
Marine Chemistry Department, Faculty of Marine Sciences,
King Abdulaziz University,
PO Box 80207, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia;
e-mail: sallihaibi@kau.edu.sa
*corresponding author

Keywords: Red Sea, Jeddah coast, hard corals, Fungia spp., mycosporine-like amino acids

Received 7 July 2008, revised 4 February 2009, accepted 9 February 2009.
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in stony coral species (Fungiidae) along the Eastern coast of the Red Sea. Six species - Fungia scutaria, F. danai, F. corona, F. repanda, Ctenactis echinata and Lithophyllor lobata - were examined for MAAs at water depths of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. Protein and chlorophyll were also determined and showed higher contents in winter than in summer. Generally, the total content of MAAs in summer was found to be approximately three times greater than in winter. Overall, concentrations of MAAs were greatest at a depth of 5 m. Porphyra-334 was the most abundant MAA in F. Scutaria and F. Danai, whereas asterina-330 was either not detectable (e.g. L. lobata) or present in low concentrations (e.g. F. danai, F. repanda and C. echinata). Shinorine was not detected in F. danai or L. lobata. Both C. echinata and L. Lobata had the lowest concentrations of MAAs, presumably because of their large calcareous skeletons. The variation in MAA concentrations among seasons and water depths is probably due to a number of factors, including the intensity of solar radiation, turbidity and phylogenetic variation.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 225.8 kB

Alien species of fish parasites in the coastal lakes and lagoons of the southern Baltic
Oceanologia 2009, 51(1), 105-115

Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Pomeranian University,
Arciszewskiego 22B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;
e-mail: morgo@onet.eu

Keywords: parasite, alien species, Southern Baltic

Received 8 August 2008, revised 16 December 2008, accepted 8 January 2009.
Alien species are now found all over the world. New fish parasites have been unintentionally introduced with infected alien fish imported for aquaculture or have sometimes spread with their intermediate invertebrate hosts transported in the ballast waters of ships. Four alien fish parasites have been recorded in Polish coastal lakes and lagoons, all parasitising eels. Three were introduced with the final host - the Japanese eel - introduced for aquaculture (Anguillicola crassus, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini) and one (Paratenuisentis ambiguus) with its sole intermediate host (Gammarus tigrinus).
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 124.5 kB

Feeding ecology of sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus W.) larvae in the German Bight, North Sea
Oceanologia 2009, 51(1), 117-138

Rüdiger Voss1,*, Miriam Dickmann2, Jörn O. Schmidt3
1Sustainable Fishery, Department of Economics, University of Kiel,
Wilhelm-Seelig Platz 1, D-24118 Kiel, Germany;
e-mail: voss@economics.uni-kiel.de
*corresponding author
2Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde,
Seestrasse 15, D-18119 Warnemünde, Germany
3Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Kiel,
Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany

Keywords: food competition, small pelagics, habitat preference, co-existence, food overlap

Received 25 August 2008, revised 9 January 2009, accepted 13 January 2009.

This work was conducted within the framework of the GLOBEC Germany project, with financial support from BMBF (03F0320C).
The abundance of the sardine in the North Sea suddenly increased after 1995. Since 2002, the sardine has been spawning regularly in the German Bight, and all its life stages can be found in the area. The larval feeding ecology of two small pelagic clupeiform species with very similar life histories was investigated, the particular aim being to determine signs of food overlap. The distribution and feeding of sprat and sardine larvae were investigated during late spring 2003 on two transects covering a wide range of environmental conditions in the German Bight. Larvae co-occurred at all the stations investigated. Sprat and sardine larvae shared a wide range of prey types. Gut fullness and feeding success were similar in both species; however, potential food competition is avoided to some extent by different habitat preferences.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 305.3 kB


The first recorded bloom of Pseudochattonella farcimen (Dictyochophyceae, Heterokonta), (Riisberg I., 2008) in the Gulf of Gdańsk
Oceanologia 2009, 51(1), 139-143

Maria Łotocka
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: lotocka@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: Pseudochattonella farcimen, bloom, Gulf of Gdańsk

Received 21 January 2009, revised 11 February 2009, accepted 16 February 2009.

The investigation were carried out within the framework of research programme II.3. of the Institute of Oceanology PAN.
In April 2001 a local bloom of the heterokont phytoflagellate Pseudochattonella farcimen (Riisberg I., 2008) (initially named Chattonella aff. verruculosa) was observed for the first time in the southern part of the Gulf of Gdańsk. The species occurred in high cell densities: the count was 11.5 × 106 cells dm-3 and the biomass 927.5 µgC dm-3.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 280.7 kB