Oceanologia No. 50 (2) / 08





A simple model of light transmission through the atmosphere over the Baltic Sea utilising satellite data
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 125-146

Adam Krężel*, Łukasz Kozłowski, Marcin Paszkuta
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: oceak@univ.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: solar energy, Baltic Sea, satellite remote sensing

Received 22 November 2007, revised 6 May 2008, accepted 19 May 2008.

The work is a part of a project supported by the Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (now the Ministry of Science and Higher Education) - grant No. PBZ-KBN 056/P04/2001.
A simple spectral model of solar energy input to the sea surface was extended to incorporate space-borne data. The extension involved finding a method of determining aerosol optical thickness (on the basis of AVHRR data) and the influence of cloudiness (on the basis of METEOSAT data) on the solar energy flux. The algorithm for satellite data assimilation involves the analysis of satellite images from the point of view of cloud identification and their classification with respect to light transmission. Solar energy input values measured at the Earth's surface by traditional methods were used to calibrate and validate the model. Preliminary evaluation of the results indicates a substantial improvement in the accuracy of estimates of solar energy input to the sea surface in relation to models utilising only traditionally obtained data on the state of the atmosphere.
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Longwave radiation budget at the Baltic Sea surface from satellite and atmospheric model data
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 147-166

Tomasz Zapadka1*, Adam Krężel2, Bogdan Woźniak1,3
1Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Academy,
Arciszewskiego 22B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;
e-mail: zapad@apsl.edu.pl, e-mail: oceak@univ.gda.pl, e-mail: wozniak@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland
3Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland

Keywords: net longwave radiation, heat budget, Baltic Sea, satellite and model data

Received 7 September 2007, revised 12 March 2008, accepted 27 March 2008.
The net longwave radiation flux LW↑↓ in the Baltic Sea in 2001 has been subjected to spatial and temporal analysis. Maps of the mean monthly LW↑↓ over the Baltic were drawn using the new semi-empirical formula for the Baltic Sea (Zapadka et al. 2007). The input data for the formula, such as sea surface and air temperatures, and cloud cover, were obtained from the Tiros N/NOAA and METEOSAT 7 satellites and from the UMPL forecast model (see http://meteo.icm.edu.pl). The mean annual LW↑↓ for 2001 was estimated at 63 W m-2 and compared with available data from other sources. The monthly maps of the net flux LW↑↓ over the Baltic show that the total values reach a minimum (LW↑↓ ≈ 50 W m-2) in April, September, October and a maximum (LW↑↓ ≈ 80 W m-2) in November. The statistical error of daily maps, on which the monthly maps were based, is no more than 18 W m-2.
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The impact of turbulence and phytoplankton dynamics on foam formation, seawater viscosity and chlorophyll concentration in the eastern English Channel
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 167-182

Irma Kesaulya1,2, Sophie C. Leterme1, James G. Mitchell1, Laurent Seuront1,3,4,*
1School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University,
GPO Box 2100, SA-5001 Adelaide, Australia;
e-mail: laurent.seuront@flinders.edu.au
*corresponding author
2Fisheries Faculty, Pattimura University,
Jl. Martha Alfons, PO Box 97211, Ambon, Indonesia
3South Australian Research and Development Institute, Aquatic Sciences,
SA-5022 West Beach, Australia
4Laboratoire d'Océanologie et de Géosciences,
CNRS UMR 8187, Station Marine de Wimereux,
Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille-Lille 1,
28 avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux, France

Keywords: turbulence, foam, plankton rheology, phytoplankton

Received 14 January 2008, revised 21 March 2008, accepted 1 April 2008.
The space-time dynamics of chlorophyll a concentration and seawater excess viscosity has been investigated in the hydrographically contrasting inshore and offshore water masses of the eastern English Channel. This was done during the phytoplankton spring bloom dominated by Phaeocystis globosa before and after the very large-scale formation of foam induced by an increase in wind-driven turbulence and the related wave breakings. The results suggest that the dynamics of chlorophyll a concentration and seawater excess viscosity are differentially controlled by the formation of foam through the intensity of the spring bloom and wind-generated turbulence.
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Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 183-203

Zbigniew Pruszak*, Grzegorz Różyński, Piotr Szmytkiewicz
Institute of Hydroengineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, (IBW PAN),
Kościerska 7, PL-80-328 Gdańsk, Poland;
e-mail: zbig@ibwpan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: mega-cusps, multibar profile, bars, Baltic Sea nearshore zone

Received 27 December 2007, revised 10 April 2008, accepted 19 May 2008.

The paper presents results of the research carried out within the project N306 003 31/0081 entitled: 'Determination and description of relationships between sediment motion, flow structures and bottom changes, together with extension and verification of the model of these phenomena for shallow water areas of a multi-bar (dissipative) and a non-bar (reflective) shore', funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland).
The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal Research Station (Poland), located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast (tidal range < 0.06 m), focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps) with wavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transform method (DWT). The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes. The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought. In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations. The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars). The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars) depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration. The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.
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Impact of prey field variability on early cod larval survival: a sensitivity study of a Baltic cod Individual-based Model
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 205-220

Jörn O. Schmidt*, Hans-Harald Hinrichsen
Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel (IFM-GEOMAR),
Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany;
e-mail: jschmidt@ifm-geomar.de
*corresponding author

Keywords: cod, larvae, predator prey interactions, biophysical model, Baltic Sea, spatial variations, IBM

Received 18 February 2008, revised 3 June 2008, accepted 3 June 2008.

This study was carried out with financial support from the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research within the GLOBEC GERMANY project (http://www.globec-germany.de).
Existing coupled biophysical models for Baltic larval cod drift, growth and survival use idealised constructed mean prey fields of nauplius distributions. These simulations revealed the best feeding conditions for Baltic cod larvae longer than 6 mm. For shorter, first feeding larvae (between 4.5 and 6 mm) pronounced differences in growth and survival were observed, which depend on food availability and to a lesser degree on ambient temperature. We performed runs with an Individual-based Model (IBM) for Baltic cod larvae in order to demonstrate how natural variability in prey abundance influences the survival success of first feeding larvae. In the Baltic, this larval stage lives mainly between 20 and 40 m depth and feeds exclusively on the nauplii of different calanoid copepods (Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus acuspes, Temora longicornis and Centropages hamatus). Prey data obtained from vertically stratified samples in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) in 2001 and 2002 indicate a strong variability at spatial and temporal scales. We calculated larval survival and growth in relation to natural variation of prey fields, i.e. species-specific nauplius abundance. The results of the model runs yielded larval survival rates from 60 to 100% if the mean size of nauplii species was taken and lower survival if prey consisted of early nauplius stages only.
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What is the diet of Palaemon elegans Rathke, 1837 (Crustacea, Decapoda), a non-indigenous species in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea)?
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 221-237

Urszula Janas, Anna Barańska
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszalka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: oceuj@ug.gda.pl

Keywords: Palaemon elegans, feeding, non-indigenous species, Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic Sea

Received 17 January 2008, revised 30 March 2008, accepted 31 March 2008.

This work was funded by a research grant N N304 264934 from the Polish Ministry of Education and Science for the period 2008-11.
Palaemon elegans, a new component of the Gulf of Gdańsk macrozoobenthos, colonised the southern Baltic coastal zone in the late 20th and early 21st century. Analysis of the stomach contents of P. elegans revealed 16 plant and animal taxa that these prawns had fed on. The principal dietary component was detritus, with a mean frequency of occurrence in stomachs of > 80%. The most frequently occurring plant components in the diet were algae from the genus Cladophora and the family Ectocarpaceae, while the most significant animal components were Harpacticoida, Chironomidae, Ostracoda and Gammarus spp. The results of the study show that the dietary composition of P. elegans differed significantly between stations and months. The foraging area consisted of two distinctive regions - the Inner Puck Bay, and the Outer Puck Bay together with the Dead Vistula River; two of the stations - Gdynia and Sopot - were distinct from all the others. However, no obvious seasonality in the food composition could be demonstrated.
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Distribution of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia thurstoni Herdman, 1890 (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) along Suez Canal and Egyptian Red Sea coasts
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 239-253

Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla
Marine Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University,
41552 Ismailia, Egypt;
e-mail: aligaballa2000@yahoo.com

Keywords: distribution, ascidian, tunicate, sea squirt, Ecteinascidia thurstoni, Red Sea, Suez Canal

Received 9 January 2008, revised 26 March 2008, accepted 21 April 2008.

This work was financed by the U.S.-Egypt Science and Technology Joint Fund, Grant Number BIO8-002-006, under the title 'Symbionts and chemistry of the ET-743 producing tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata'.
Ecteinascidia thurstoni is a colonial sea squirt. It has a seasonal rhythm and a tropical and subtropical distribution; it is usually present during the summer months. It synthesizes a group of molecules called ecteinascidins. One of these is ET-743, a compound that has a most original anti-tumoral activity and is today considered to be one of the most promising substances effective against various solid-type tumors (currently sold under the trade name of Yondelis for the treatment of sarcomas and related tumors; it is undergoing phase II/III clinical trails for other kinds of tumors). Worldwide, Ecteinascidia species represent the only available source of this bioactive compound, which was first discovered in E. turbinata. During the present study, the ecology of E. thurstoni along the Suez Canal and Red Sea was investigated. Its populations were observed to be highly gregarious due in part to their low larval dispersal, which is very localized; larvae therefore tend to settle close to their parent colonies. It is only recorded in shallow waters (0.5-1.5 m) as an epiphyte on the pneumatophores of mangroves by the Red Sea, on the pilings of jetties, and the metal or cement banks of the Suez Canal. The morphometric characteristics (zooid length, zooid weight, colony weight) of the Suez Canal population differ significantly from those of the Red Sea. Studying the distribution of this species and locating its different populations along the Suez Canal and Red Sea could help to characterize their genetics, chemistry and bacterial communities at different isolated locations. Ultimately, this will help to define the sources of ET-743 and hence promote its biosynthesis on a commercial scale.
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Utilisation of macroalgae from the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 255-273

Anna Filipkowska1, Ludwik Lubecki1, Małgorzata Szymczak-Żyła1, Grażyna Kowalewska1,*, Radosław Żbikowski2, Piotr Szefer2
1Marine Pollution Laboratory,
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: Kowalewska@iopan.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Department of Food Sciences, Medical University of Gdańsk,
Hallera 107, PL-80-416 Gdańsk, Poland

Keywords: macroalgae, beach, Baltic Sea, monitoring, contamination, utilisation, biofertiliser

Received 27 March 2008, revised 3 June 2008, accepted 4 June 2008.

This study was in part financed by the EU CosCo project ('Regional cycle development through coastal co-operation - sea grass and algae focus' - INTERREG IIIC 2N00251) and the statutory IO PAS programme.
The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilising the macroalgae accumulating on the Sopot beach, a part of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea). During this work (2004-2006) a range of activities were undertaken: monitoring the occurrence of macroalgae, collection of plant material, taxonomic identification, laboratory analyses of contamination (metals - Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg; radionuclides - 137Cs, 40K; organic contaminants - polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), the stage of algal degradation and studying possible uses of the plant material collected on the beach. The most suitable way of utilising the plant material seems to be as a biofertiliser. Laboratory growth tests were carried out to assess this possible use; they were successful.
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The first record of Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala, Tenuisentidae) in Poland
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 275-279

Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Pomeranian Academy,
Arciszewskiego 22B, PL-76-200 Słupsk;
e-mail: morgo@onet.eu

Keywords: Paratenuisentis ambiguus, Anguilla anguilla, parasite, Poland

Received 3 March 2008, revised 14 April 2008, accepted 16 April 2008.
Paratenuisentis ambiguus, an acanthocephalan originating from North America, is an alien species parasitising the European eel Anguilla anguilla. It was first recorded in Lake Lebsko, on the central coast of Poland. The report gives morphometric measurements of male and female P. ambiguus from this locality. Because of the spread of the intermediate host Gammarus tigrinus and the appearance of new adults in eels along the southern Baltic Coast, P. ambiguus is evidently able to complete its life cycle in Baltic coastal waters.
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Chelon labrosus (Risso, 1827) - the first record from Lake Dąbie (Poland)
Oceanologia 2008, 50(2), 280-284

Przemysław Czerniejewski1,*, Sławomir Keszka2, Agnieszka Rybczyk3
1Department of Fish Management of Open Waters, Agricultural University,
Kazimierza Królewicza 4, PL-71-550 Szczecin, Poland;
e-mail: przemyslaw.czerniejewski@fish.ar.szczecin.pl
*corresponding author
2Department of Fish Systematics, Agricultural University,
Kazimierza Królewicza 4, PL-71-550 Szczecin, Poland
3Department of Fish Biology, Agricultural University,
Kazimierza Królewicza 4, PL-71-550 Szczecin, Poland

Keywords: alien species, thick-lipped grey mullet, Polish estuarine waters, Lake Dąbie

Received 25 March 2008, revised 6 May 2008, accepted 19 May 2008.
We report on the first occurrence of Chelon labrosus in a Polish estuary. One Ch. labrosus was caught with a fyke net in the northern part of Lake Dąbie (Odra estuary) on 14 November 2007. It measured 266.92 mm in overall length and weighed 176.8 g. The fish's metric and meristic characters, age by scale, condition, sex and maturity stage (Maier's scale) were determined.
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