A more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation flux in the Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2007, 49(4), 449-470
Tomasz Zapadka^{1,*}, Bogdan Woźniak^{1,2}, Jerzy Dera^{2} ^{1}Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Academy,
Arciszewskiego 22B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;
e-mail: zapad@apsl.edu.pl ^{*}corresponding author ^{2}Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland
Keywords:
longwave radiation, Baltic Sea
Received 1 August 2007, revised 5 November 2007, accepted 9 November 2007.
Abstract
A new, more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation flux
LW ↑↓ has been devised for the Baltic Sea region. To this end,
the following sets of simultaneously measured data regarding the longwave radiation of the sea and
the atmosphere were used: the temperatures of the sea surface and its contiguous air layer,
the water vapour pressure in the air above the water, and the cloud cover.
These data were gathered during numerous research cruises in the Baltic in 2000-03 and were supplemented by satellite
data from Karlsson (2001) characterising the cloud cover over the whole Baltic. The formula
established for LW ↑↓ can be written in the form of three alternative equations,
differing with respect to their cloud cover functions: LW ↑↓ =
0.985σT^{4}_{s} - σT^{4}_{a} (0.685+0.00452e)
{
(1 + d_{ }n^{2}) average for all cloud types (Z1)
(1 + d_{i}n^{2}) separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z2)
(1 + d_{i}n^{γi}) separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z3)
where σ - Stefan-Boltzmann constant; T_{s} - sea surface temperature [K]; T_{a} - air temperature [K]; e - water vapour pressure [mbar]; n - total cloud amount [0 - 1]; d - mean empirical dimensionless coefficient, determined for all cloud types or for particular months (see Tables 3 and 4);
d_{a} - empirical coefficient determined for the quadratic function: d_{1} = 0.39 for low-level clouds, d_{2} = 0.305 for mid-level clouds, d_{3} = 0.22 for high-level clouds; d_{i} - empirical coefficient determined as follows: d_{1} = 0.39 for low-level clouds when γ_{1} = 1.3, d_{2} = 0.29 for mid-level clouds when γ_{2} = 1.1; d_{3} = 0.17 for high-level clouds when γ_{3} = 0.96. The improved accuracy of this formula (RMSE ≅ 10 W m^{-2}) is due chiefly to the establishment of functions and coefficients characterising the cloud cover over the Baltic in particular months of the year and their incorporation into it.
Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 1: Total chlorophyll a distribution
Oceanologia 2007, 49(4), 471-489
Mirosława Ostrowska^{1}, Roman Majchrowski^{2}, Joanna Stoń-Egiert^{1}, Bogdan Woźniak^{1,2}, Dariusz Ficek^{2}, Jerzy Dera^{1} ^{1}Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: ostra@iopan.gda.pl ^{2}Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Academy,
Arciszewskiego 22B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;
e-mail: majchrowski@apsl.edu.pl
Keywords: Baltic Sea, chlorophyll a concentration, vertical distribution, remote sensing
Received 6 September 2007, revised 29 November 2007, accepted 3 December 2007.
This work was carried out within the framework of IO PAS's statutory research and also as part of project PBZ-BN 056/P04/2001/3 of the Institute of Physic, Pomeranian Academy, Słupsk, funded by the Commitee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology.
Abstract
This article is the first in a series of three describing the modelling of the vertical different photosynthetic and photoprotecting phytoplankton pigments concentration distributions in the Baltic and their interrelations
described by the so-called non-photosynthetic pigment factor.
The model formulas yielded by this research are an integral part of the algorithms used in the remote sensing
of the Baltic ecosystem. Algorithms of this kind have already been developed by our team from data relating mainly to oceanic Case 1 waters (WC1) and have produced good results for these waters. But their application to Baltic waters, i.e.,
Case 2 waters, was not so successful. On the basis of empirical data for the Baltic Sea, we therefore derived new mathematical expressions for the spatial distribution of Baltic phytoplankton pigments. They are discussed in this series of articles.
This first article presents a statistical model for determining the total concentration of
chlorophyll, a (i.e., the sum of chlorophylls a+pheo derived spectrophotometrically) at different depths in the Baltic Sea C_{a}(z) on the basis of its surface concentration C_{a}(0),
which can be determined by remote sensing. This model accounts for the principal features of the vertical distributions of chlorophyll concentrations characteristic of the Baltic Sea. The model's precision was verified empirically: it was found suitable for application in the efficient monitoring of the Baltic Sea. The modified mathematical descriptions of the concentrations of accessory pigments (photosynthetic and photoprotecting) in Baltic phytoplankton and selected relationships between them are given in the other two articles in this series (Majchrowski et al. 2007, Woźniak et al. 2007b, both in this volume).
Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 2: Accessory pigment distribution:
Oceanologia 2007, 49(4), 491-511
Roman Majchrowski^{1}, Joanna Stoń-Egiert^{2}, Mirosława Ostrowska^{2}, Bogdan Woźniak^{1,2}, Dariusz Ficek^{1}, Barbara Lednicka^{2}, Jerzy Dera^{2} ^{1}Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Academy,
Arciszewskiego 22B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;
e-mail: majchrowski@apsl.edu.pl ^{2}Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: aston@iopan.gda.pl
Received 10 September 2007, revised 22 November 2007, accepted 27 November 2007.
This work was carried out within the framework of IO PAS's statutory research and also as part of project PBZ-BN 056/P04/2001/3 of the Institute of Physic, Pomeranian Academy, Słupsk, funded by the Commitee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology.
Abstract
This is the second in a series of articles, the aim of which is to derive mathematical expressions describing the vertical distributions of the concentrations of different groups of phytoplankton pigments; these expressions are necessary in the algorithms for the remote sensing of the marine ecosystem. It presents formulas for the vertical profiles of the following groups of accessory phytoplankton pigments: chlorophylls b, chlorophylls c, phycobilins, photosynthetic carotenoids and photoprotecting carotenoids, all for the uppermost layer of water in the Baltic Sea with an optical depth of
τ ≈ 5. The mathematical expressions for the first four of these five groups of pigments, classified as photosynthetic pigments, enable their concentrations to be estimated at different optical depths in the sea from known surface
concentrations of chlorophyll a. The precision of these estimates is characterised by the following relative statistical errors according to logarithmic statistics σ_: approximately 44% for chlorophyll b, approx. 39% for chlorophyll c, approx. 43% for phycobilins and approx. 45% for photosynthetic carotenoids. On the other hand, the mathematical expressions describing the vertical distributions of photoprotecting carotenoid concentrations enable these to be
estimated at different depths in the sea also from known surface concentrations of chlorophyll a, but additionally from known values of the irradiance in the PAR spectral range at the sea surface, with a statistical error σ_ of approximately 42%.
Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 3: Nonphotosynthetic pigment absorption factor:
Oceanologia 2007, 49(4), 513-526
Bogdan Woźniak^{1,2}, Roman Majchrowski^{2}, Mirosława Ostrowska^{1}, Dariusz Ficek^{2}, Justyna Kunicka^{1}, Jerzy Dera^{1} ^{1}Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: wozniak@iopan.gda.pl ^{2}Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Academy,
Arciszewskiego 22B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;
e-mail: majchrowski@apsl.edu.pl
Received 1 August 2007, revised 5 November 2007, accepted 9 November 2007.
This work was carried out within the framework of IO PAS's statutory research and also as part of project PBZ-BN 056/P04/2001/3 of the Institute of Physic, Pomeranian Academy, Słupsk, funded by the Commitee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology.
Abstract
This paper, part 3 of the description of vertical pigment distributions in the Baltic Sea, discusses the mathematical expression enabling the vertical distributions of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor f_{a} to be estimated. The factor f_{a} is directly related to concentrations of the several groups of phytoplankton pigments and describes quantitatively the ratio of the light energy absorbed at given depths by photosynthetic pigments to the light energy absorbed by all the phytoplankton pigments together (photosynthetic and photoprotecting). Knowledge of this factor is highly desirable in the construction of state-of-the-art "light-photosynthesis" models for remote-sensing purposes.
The expression enables f_{a} to be estimated with considerable precision on the basis of two surface parameters (available from satellite observations): the total chlorophyll a concentration at the surface
C_{a}(0) and the spectral downward irradiance E_{d}(λ, 0) just below the sea surface. The expression is applicable to Baltic waters from the surface down to an optical depth of τ ≈ 5.
The verification of the model description of f_{a} was based on 400 quasi-empirical values of this factor which were calculated on the basis of empirical values of the following parameters measured at the same depths: E_{d}(λ, z) (or also PAR(z)), a_{pl}(λ, z),
and the concentrations of all the groups of phytoplankton pigments C_{a}(z) and C_{j}(z) (where j denotes in turn chl b, chl c, PSC, phyc, PPC). The verification shows that the errors in the values of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor f_{a} estimated using the model
developed in this work are small: in practice they do not exceed 4%.
Besides the mathematical description of the vertical distribution of f_{a}, this paper also discusses the range of variation of its values measured in the Baltic and its dependence on the trophic index of a basin and depth in the sea. In addition, the similarities and differences in the behaviour of f_{a} in Baltic and oceanic basins are compared.
Quantum yield of photosynthesis in the Baltic: a new mathematical expression for remote sensing applications:
Oceanologia 2007, 49(4), 527-542
Bogdan Woźniak^{1,2}, Dariusz Ficek^{2}, Mirosława Ostrowska^{1}, Roman Majchrowski^{2}, Jerzy Dera^{1} ^{1}Institute of Oceanology,
Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańnców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: wozniak@iopan.gda.pl ^{2}Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Academy,
Arciszewskiego 22B, PL-76-200 Słupsk, Poland;
e-mail: ficek@apsl.edu.pl
Keywords:
Baltic Sea, quantum yield of photosynthesis, remote sensing
Received 10 September 2007, revised 26 November 2007, accepted 28 November 2007.
This work was carried out within the framework of IO PAS's statutory research and also as part of project PBZ-BN 056/P04/2001/3 of the Institute of Physic, Pomeranian Academy, Słupsk, funded by the Commitee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology.
Abstract
Statistical relationships between the quantum yield of photosynthesis Φ and selected environmental factors in the Baltic have been established on the basis of a large quantity of empirical data. The model formula is the product of the theoretical
maximum quantum yield Φ_{MAX} = 0.125 atomC quantum^{-1} and five dimensionless factors f_{i} taking values from 0 do 1:
Φ = Φ_{MAX}f_{a}f_{Δ}f_{c}(C_{a}(0)) f_{c}(PAR_{inh}) f_{E,t}.
To a sufficiently good approximation, each of these factors f_{i} appears to be dependent on one or at most two environmental factors, such as temperature, underwater irradiance, surface concentration of chlorophyll a, absorption properties of phytoplankton and optical depth. These dependences have been determined for Baltic Case 2 waters. The quantum yield Φ, calculated from known values of these environmental factors, is then applicable in the model algorithm
for the remote sensing of Baltic primary production. The statistical error of the approximate quantum yields Φ is 62%.
Monitoring the biological effects of pollution on the Algerian west coast using mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis
Oceanologia 2007, 49(4), 543-564
Zoheïr M. Taleb^{*}, Sofiane Benghali, Amina Kaddour, Zitouni Boutiba
Réseau de Surveillance Environnementale (RSE),
Department of Biology, University of Oran Es Senia,
31000 Oran, Algeria;
e-mail: mztaleb@yahoo.fr ^{*}corresponding author
Keywords:
Algerian west coast, Mytilus galloprovincialis, lysosomal membrane stability, micronucleus, acetylcholinesterase
Received 13 April 2007, revised 19 September 2007, accepted 6 November 2007.
Abstract
The Algerian west coast is the prime recipient of several forms of pollution; hence, the necessity for an impact assessment of
this coastal pollution using a suite of recommended marine biomarkers, including lysosomal membrane stability in living cells by the Neutral Red Retention Time (NRRT) method, the evaluation of micronucleus (MN) frequency, and the determination of
acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled from the large, polluted Oran Harbour (OH) and the Maârouf (Mrf) marine mussel farm between July 2005 and April 2006. The difference in the variations of the annual physical parameters between OH and Mrf corresponds to the influence of the domestic and industrial sewage discharged by the city of Oran. The biological data of the mussels (condition index, protein content) recorded at both sites were related to their natural reproductive cycle. This indicated that intrinsic variation between the sites due to different mussel development phases was minimal. The variation in the AChE activity of some organs of OH and Mrf mussels, with minimal inhibition in July and a higher NRRT recorded in the granular haemocytes in the Mrf than in the OH mussels during the autumn and spring, depends on the quality of the biotope and on generic stress factors. Moreover, the variation in MN frequency, in general reflecting a non-significant seasonal and spatial genotoxic effect of the contamination at the two sampling sites, requires further investigations regarding biotic and abiotic variations.
Temporal variations in coral reef health at a coastal industrial site on the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea
Oceanologia 2007, 49(4), 565-578
Mohammad K. Al-Zibdah^{1,*}, Said A. Damhoureyeh^{2}, Mohammad I. Badran^{3} ^{1}Marine Science Station, Aqaba,
University of Jordan/Yarmouk University,
PO Box 195, 77110 Aqaba, Jordan;
e-mail: zibdeh@ju.edu.jo ^{*}corresponding author ^{2}Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science,
University of Jordan,
11942 Amman, Jordan ^{3}Regional Organization for Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden,
PO Box 53662, 21583 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Keywords:
Macrobenthos, coral reef, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea
Received 23 May 2007, revised 17 September 2007, accepted 27 September 2007.
Abstract
A detailed ecological study was conducted for three years (2001-03) on a 5 km stretch of well-developed coral reef
facing an industrial site in the southernmost section of the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. The degree
of modification associated with the prevailing ecological factors was assessed with respect to species diversity and abundance
of the major groups of the macrobenthic community: corals, bivalves, hydrozoans, echinoderms, sponges and macroalgae. Three locations of two depths each - 6 and 12 m - were selected and surveyed using the visual census point-intercept method. The actual area of the survey covered about 2250 m^{2}.
Macrobenthic communities occurring close to the industrial jetty were characterized by low diversity and the obvious dominance of soft coral (16-30% cover). In the deep transects (12 m) hard coral cover was higher than that in the shallow transects (30-55%). Correlation analyses indicated that species richness increased with increasing distance from the industrial jetty. Species richness of other macrobenthos was also higher as depth increased. The results revealed that the distribution and abundance of coral, echinoderms, hydrozoans and macroalgae were correlated with the relative importance of bottom modification within the various locations in the entire study area. However, no distinct influence of location or depth on the identities of most macrobenthic species was indicated.
Building on the concept of marine biological valuation with respect to translating it to a practical protocol: View points derived from a joint ENCORA--MARBEF initiative
Oceanologia 2007, 49(4), 579-586
Sofie Derous^{1,*}, Melanie Austen^{2}, Simon Claus^{3}, Niels Daan^{4}, Jean Claude Dauvin^{5}, Klaas Deneudt^{3}, Jochen Depestele^{6}, Nicolas Desroy^{7}, Henk Heessen^{4}, Kris Hostens^{6}, Anne Husum Marboe^{8}, Ann-Katrien Lescrauwaet^{3}, Mariapaola Moreno^{9}, Ine Moulaert^{6}, Desire Paelinckx^{10}, Marijn Rabaut^{1}, Hubert Rees^{11}, Adriana Ressurreição^{12}, John Roff^{13}, Paulo Talhadas Santos^{14}, Jeroen Speybroeck^{1}, Eric Willem Maria Stienen^{10}, Agnieszka Tatarek^{15}, Remmment Ter Hofstede^{4}, Magda Vincx^{1}, Tomasz Zarzycki^{16}, Steven Degraer^{1} ^{1}Marine Biology Section, Biology Department, University of Ghent,
Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent, Belgium;
e-mail: Sofie.Derous@UGent.be ^{*}corresponding author ^{2}Plymouth Marine Laboratory,
Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth, PL4 3DH, U.K. ^{3}Flanders Marine Institute, Wandelaarkaai 7,
8400 Oostende, Belgium ^{4}Wageningen, IMARES,
Haringkade 1, 1970 AB IJmuiden, Netherlands ^{5}Station Marine de Wimereux, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille,
Avenue Foch 28, 62930 Wimereux, France ^{6}Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO),
Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende, Belgium ^{7}Laboratoire IFREMER Finistère-Bretagne Nord, Site de Saint-Malo,
2 Rue Grout Saint Georges, BP 46, 35402 Saint-Malo, France ^{8}Department for Environmental, Social and Spatial Change,
Roskilde University, Universitetsvej 1, Postbox 260, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark ^{9}Dipartimento per lo studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, University of Genoa,
Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova, Italy ^{10}Research Institute for Nature and Forest,
Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels, Belgium ^{11}Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory,
Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex CM0 8HA, U.K. ^{12}Campus of Horta, University of the Azores,
Cais de Santa Cruz, PT-9901-862 Horta, Açores, Portugal ^{13}Canada Research Chair, Environment and Conservation, Environmental Science, Acadia University,
Wolfville, B4P 2R6 Nova Scotia, Canada ^{14}CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Porto University,
Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal ^{15}Department of Marine Ecology, Institute of Oceanology PAS,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland ^{16}Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland
Keywords:
marine biological valuation, ecological criteria, intrinsic value
Received 5 July 2007, revised 10 October 2007, accepted 24 October 2007.
The workshop was financed by the MarBEF project (Network of Excellence on Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, Contract number GOCE-CT-2003-505446) of the European Union (FP6) and the ENCORA project (European Network on Coastal Research, Contract number GOCE-518120) of the European Union (FP6). This paper contributes to the BOF-GOA project BBSea (Project number 01G00705) of Ghent University. This publication is contribution No MPS-07078 of MarBEF.
Abstract
Marine biological valuation provides a comprehensive concept for assessing the intrinsic value of subzones within a study
area. This paper gives an update on the concept of marine biological valuation as described by Derous et al. (2007). This concept was based on a literature review of existing ecological valuation criteria and the consensus reached by a discussion group of experts during an international workshop in December 2004. The concept was discussed during an ENCORA-MARBEF workshop in December 2006, which resulted in the fine-tuning of the concept of marine biological valuation, especially with respect to its applicability to marine areas.