Oceanologia No. 49 (1) / 07



Invited papers



Dissemination of results in marine research



The Editor would like to thank all the 89 reviewers who in 2006 reviewed the papers submitted to Oceanologia. We received a kind permission to print the following reviewers names:

Dr Katri Aarnio (Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland) • Dr George van Aken (NIZO food research, Ede, The Netherlands) • Dr Sergey Babichenko (Laser Diagnostic Instruments AS, Tallinn, Estonia) • Prof. Bhavik R. Bakshi (The Ohio State University, Colombus, USA) • Dr Bożena Bogaczewicz-Adamczak (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Ryszard Bojanowski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Jerzy Cyberski (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Ario Damar (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia) • Prof. Bohdan Draganik (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Czesław Druet (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Izabella Dunin-Kwinta (Agricultural Academy of Szczecin, Poland) • Prof. Jüri Elken (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia) • Dr Ants Erm (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia) • Doc. Hans Peter-Fagerholm (Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland) • Dr Albert Falqués (Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain) • Dr Eric Gilman (Blue Ocean Institute, USA) • Dr Nikolay Golenko (Atlantic Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Kaliningrad, Russia) • Dr Stephan Gollasch (GoConsult, Hamburg, Germany) • Dr Eberhard Hagen (Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde-Rostock, Germany) • Prof. Else N. Hegseth (University Trømso, Norway) • Prof. Krzysztof Jażdżewski (University of Łódź, Poland) • Dr Jan Jędrasik (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Leszek Kaczmarek (Institute of Hydroengineering PAS, Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Genrik S. Karabashev (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, Moscow, Russia) • Dr Rolf Koppelann (University of Hamburg, Germany) • Doc. Alicja Kosakowska (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Aarno Kotilainen (Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland) • Doc. Grażyna Kowalewska (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Adam Krężel (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Elżbieta Łysiak-Pastuszak (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Maritime Branch, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Ken Mann (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Halifax, Canada) • Dr Roman Marks (University of Szczecin, Poland) • Dr Hanna Mazur-Marzec (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Stanisław R. Massel (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Markus Meier (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden) • Prof. Józef Mojski (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Kai Myrberg (Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki, Finland) • Dr Günther Nausch (Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany) • Prof. Henn Ojaveer (University of Tartu, Estonia) • Dr Emil Òlafsson (Scientific Consultancy & Education, Palencia, Spain) • Prof. Jerzy Olszewski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Zbigniew Otremba (Gdynia Maritime University, Poland) • Dr Marianna Pastuszak (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Janusz Pempkowiak (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Jan Piechura (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Jacek Piskozub (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Marcin Pliński (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Bob Pressey (University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia) • Prof. Zbigniew Pruszak (Institute of Hydroengineering PAS, Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Teresa Radziejewska (University of Szczecin, Poland) • Dr Rolf Reissbrodt (Robert Koch-Institut, Bereich Wernigerode, Germany) • Dr Lawrence Rozas (NOAA Fisheries ServiceŚEFSC, Lafayette, USA) • Prof. Vera Slaveykova (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, EPFL, Switzerland) • Dr Paweł Schlichtholz (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Corinna Schrum (University of Bergen, Norway) • Prof. Dariusz Stramski (Scripps Institution of Oceanography at San Diego, La Jolla, USA) • Prof. Jürgen Sündermann (University of Hamburg, Germany) • Dr Ola Svensson (University of Hull, UK) • Prof. Anna Szaniawska (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Piotr Szefer (Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Romuald Szymkiewicz (Technical University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Antoni Śliwiński (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Doc. Szymon Uścinowicz (Polish Geological Institute, Marine Geology Branch, Gdańsk, Poland) • Dr Timo Vihma (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland) • Priv.-Doz. Maren Voss (Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany) • Dr Jan Warzocha (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Grzegorz Węgrzyn (University of Gdańsk, Poland) • Prof. Jan Marcin Węsławski (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Dr Rutger de Wit (CNRS & Université Montpellier II, France) • Prof. Zbigniew Witek (Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland) • Prof. Bogdan Woźniak (Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland) • Prof. Krzysztof Zdzitowiecki (The Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology PAS, Warszawa, Poland).

Invited papers

Spectral effects in bio-optical control on the ocean system
Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 5-39

Shubha Sathyendranath1, Trevor Platt2
1Plymouth Marine Laboratory,
Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH, United Kingdom
2Bedford Institute of Oceanography,
PO Box 1006, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, B2Y 4A2 Canada

Keywords: bio-optical properties of phytoplankton, remote sensing of ocean colour, species succession, primary production, phytoplankton functional types and mixed-layer physics

Received 18 January 2007, revised 26 February 2007, accepted 27 February 2007.
The influence of phytoplankton on the spectral structure of the submarine irradiance field is reviewed. The implications for the ocean system of the spectral response by phytoplankton to the ambient light field are discussed. For example, it provides the basis for retrieval of phytoplankton biomass by visible spectral radiometry (ocean-colour remote sensing). In the computation of primary production, the results of spectral models differ in a known and systematic manner from those of non-spectral ones. The bias can be corrected without risk of incurring additional random errors. The models in use for phytoplankton growth, whether based on available light or absorbed light, whether expressed in terms of chlorophyll or carbon, are shown all to conform to the same basic formalism with the same parameters. Residual uncertainty lies less with the models than with the parameters required for their implementation. The submarine light field and the spectral characteristics of phytoplankton carry latent information on phytoplankton community structure. Differences in spectral response by different functional types of phytoplankton are small but significant. Optical considerations limit the maximum phytoplankton biomass that can be sustained in a given surface mixed layer. Moreover, the upper bound on the biomass depends on the spectral response of the dominant phytoplankton taxa. As a result, an optical control exists in the mixed layer that tends to resist extreme excursions of the biomass and also to maintain biodiversity in the phytoplankton.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 625 KB


Coastal processes of Central Tamil Nadu, India: clues from grain size studies
Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 41-57

Nimalanathan Angusamy1,*, G. Victor Rajamanickam2
1Department of Earth Sciences, Tamil University,
Thanjavur - 613 005, India;
e-mail: angu1@yahoo.com
*corresponding author
2Department of Disaster Management, SASTRA Deemed University,
Thanjavur - 613 402, India

Keywords: grain size, depositional environment, coastal processes, central Tamil Nadu, India
Received 22 February 2006, revised 20 October 2006, accepted 8 November 2006.
The sediments of the beaches along the central coast of Tamil Nadu from Pondicherry to Vedaranyam were studied for their textural variation. 108 sediment samples collected from the low-, mid-, and high-tidal zones, as well as the berms and dunes of different beach morpho-units were analysed. The study area was divided into three sectors (northern, central and southern) on the basis of prevailing energy conditions and oceanographic parameters. The poorly sorted, negatively skewed, coarser sediments of the northern sector are indicative of denudational processes taking place there. Medium-to-fine, moderately-to-well sorted, positive-symmetrically skewed sediments dominate the central sector, probably as a result of the influence of palaeo-sediments deposited by rivers from inland as well as by waves and currents from offshore. Fine, poorly sorted, positive-symmetrically skewed sediments dominate the southern sector, highlighting depositional processes. Linear Discriminant Function Analysis (LDF) of the samples indicates a shallow marine environment origin for all the three sectors. These results show that reworked sediments, submerged during the Holocene marine transgression, are being deposited on present-day beaches by waves, currents and rivers in the study area.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 911 KB

Seasonal and spatial variability of surface seawater fluorescence properties in the Baltic and Nordic Seas: results of lidar experiments
Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 59-69

Violetta Drozdowska
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: drozdowska@iopan.gda.pl

Keywords: fluorescent components of seawater, Baltic Sea, lidar, fluorescence parameter

Received 8 November 2006, revised 8 January 2007, accepted 18 January 2007.

This work was funded by the Polish State Committee for Scientific Research, grant No PB 0384/Po4/2003/25.
The paper analyses experimental measurements of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra in different seawaters. The fluorescence parameters, calculated from LIF spectra as the ratio of the integrals of fluorescence and Raman signal intensities, provide information about the relative changes in the concentrations of fluorescing molecules. Gathered during several cruises in 1994-2004 in the Baltic and Nordic Seas, all the data are presented as scatter plots of the fluorescence parameters of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Satisfactory correlations between these two parameters were found a) for open Nordic Seas waters, b) for the southern Baltic in blooming periods only, and c) for the Gulf of Gdańnsk in non-blooming periods only.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 425 KB

137Cs activity distribution in the Lithuanian coastal waters of the Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 71-90

Lina Davuliene, Nikolay Tarasiuk, Narciza Spirkauskaite, Gediminas Trinkunas, Leonas Valkunas
Institute of Physics,
Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius, Lithuania;
e-mail: arlauske@ktl.mii.lt
*corresponding author

Keywords: radiocaesium, activity concentration, specific activity, Baltic Sea, Curonian Lagoon, hydrodynamic model

Received 15 September 2006, revised 6 November 2006, accepted 4 December 2006.

This research was partly supported by the IAEA projects "Assessment of radionuclide migration in the Lithuanian part of the Baltic Sea environment", No LIT, 2/002 (1999-2000), and "Assessment of radionuclide migration in the Lithuanian part of the Baltic Sea and Curonian Lagoon", No LIT, 7/002 (2001-2002), and also by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation T-04181.
The main 137Cs accumulation zone in the study area was found to be located at depths below the 50-metre isobath, i.e. below the layer of hydrodynamic activity. In coastal waters not influenced by the fresh water discharge from the Curonian Lagoon, 137Cs occurs mostly in soluble form. The particulate 137Cs activity concentration in the marine area affected by Curonian Lagoon water can make up 10% of the total 137Cs activity concentration. The circulation model was developed to assess the distribution of artificial radionuclides in Lithuanian territorial waters. The model was validated on the basis of data acquired during the measurement campaign in the Lithuanian part of the Baltic Sea and the Curonian Lagoon in the years 1999-2001. The model enables the 137Cs activity concentration to be simulated as a passive admixture (error within c. 15%).
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 794 KB

Species - area relationships for sandy beach macrobenthos in the context of intertidal width
Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 91-98

Anton McLachlan*, Atsu Dorvlo
College of Agricultural & Marine Sciences and College of Science,
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman;
e-mail: anton.m@squ.edu.om
*corresponding author

Keywords: sandy beaches, macrofauna, benthos, island biogeography

Received 27 November 2006, revised 22 January 2007, accepted 26 January 2007.
The marine species richness (MSR) recorded in 159 sandy beach surveys was analysed in relation to beach width (W). MSR is the number of macrobenthic species collected in a standard intertidal transect survey, excluding insects. Beach width (W) was estimated by dividing the spring tide range [m] by the beach face slope, to give a value in [m]. The relationship between MSR and W was best described by a semilog (exponential) model, which was highly significant:
      MSR = -5.2 + 10.8 log W.
      The fit of a power model (MSR = cWz) was also significant. The steep slope of the curve for a power model (z=0.49) suggests that beaches function as isolated rather than contiguous habitats and that the nature of the habitat becomes more benign as beaches widen. There are some latitudinal effects, with tropical beaches displaying a higher species-area relationship for any beach width than other regions.

full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 1082 KB

A concept for biological valuation in the marine environment
Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 99-128

Sofie Derous1,*, Tundi Agardy2, Hans Hillewaert3, Kris Hostens3, Glen Jamieson4, Louise Lieberknecht5, Jan Mees6, Ine Moulaert3, Sergej Olenin7, Desire Paelinckx8, Marijn Rabaut1, Eike Rachor9, John Roff10, Eric Willem Maria Stienen8, Jan Tjalling van der Wal11, Vera van Lancker12, Els Verfaillie12, Magda Vincx1, Jan Marcin Węsławski13, Steven Degraer1
1Marine Biology Section, Biology Department,
University of Ghent,
Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent, Belgium;
e-mail: Sofie.Derous@UGent.be

*corresponding author
2Sound Seas,
6620 Broad Street, Bethesda, MD 20816, U.S.A.
3Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO),
Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende, Belgium
4Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station,
3190 Hammond Bay Road, Nanaimo, B.C., Canada
5Joint Nature Conservation Committee,
Monkstone House, City Road, Peterborough; PE1 1JY, U.K.
6Flanders Marine Institute,
Wandelaarkaai 7, 8400 Oostende, Belgium
7Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Klaipeda University,
H. Manto 84, LT 92294, Klaipeda, Lithuania
8Research Institute for Nature and Forest,
Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
9Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung,
Bürgermeister-Smidt-Straße 20, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany
10Canada Research Chair, Environment and Conservation,
Environmental Science, Acadia University,
Wolfville, B4P 2R6 Nova Scotia, Canada
11Ecological Risk Studies, TNO-MEP,
Postbus 57, 1785 AB, Den Helder, the Netherlands
12Renard Centre of Marine Geology, University of Ghent,
Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
13Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland

Keywords: marine biological valuation, biodiversity, ecological valuation criteria, intrinsic value, hotspot approach

Received 28 August 2006, revised 11 January 2007, accepted 29 January 2007.

The research was financed by the project BWZee ("A biological valuation map for the Belgian part of the North Sea") of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (Contract No EV/02/37), the BOF-GOA project BBSea (Project No 01G00705) of Ghent University, the ENCORA project (European Network on Coastal Research, Contract No GOCE-518120) of the European Union (FP6) and the MarBEF Network of Excellence "Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning", which is funded by the Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems Programme of the European Community's Sixth Framework Programme (Contract No GOCE-CT-2003-505446). This publication is contribution No MPS-07022 of MarBEF. Additional funding for the workshop on marine biological valuation was also granted by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (Fund No MN00000/10).
In order to develop management strategies for sustainable use and conservation in the marine environment, reliable and meaningful, but integrated ecological information is needed. Biological valuation maps that compile and summarize all available biological and ecological information for a study area, and that allocate an overall biological value to subzones, can be used as baseline maps for future spatial planning at sea. This paper provides a concept for marine biological valuation which is based on a literature review of existing valuation criteria and the consensus reached by a discussion group of experts.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 136 KB


Expansion of the North American amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 to the Neva Estuary (easternmost Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 129-135

Nadezhda A. Berezina
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Universitetskaya emb. 1, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia;
e-mail: nber@zin.ru

Keywords: invasive amphipod, Gammarus tigrinus, expansion history, new occurrence, Neva Estuary

Received 10 October 2006, revised 18 January 2007, accepted 2 February 2007.

The study was supported by the Program on Biodiversity Conservation from the Russian Academy of Sciences and the President's "Russian Scientific Schools" grant No 5577.2006.4.
The North American gammaridean amphipod, Gammarus tigrinus, was found in the easternmost part of the Baltic Sea (Neva Estuary) near a new oil terminal. This species may well have been transported to the Neva Estuary with ballast waters from the Finnish area of the Gulf of Finland, where it was recorded recently. In 2005, the mid-summer density of G. tigrinus was 27 indiv. m-2. By 2006 this species had spread 100 km to the east from the first site, colonizing the northern coastal zone of the estuary. Its density reached 99-126 indiv. m-2. Fecund females and juveniles contributed about 50% to the entire population density, which testifies to the successful reproduction and establishment of G. tigrinus in the Neva Estuary. There is a high risk of further expansions of G. tigrinus from the new area to the various lakes of Eastern Europe via inland canal-river systems, which may lead to unforeseeable changes in aquatic communities.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 507 KB

Epibiota associated with setae on Chinese mitten crab claws Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards, 1853): a first record
Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 137-143

Monika Normant, Jakub Korthals, Anna Szaniawska
Department of Experimental Ecology of Marine Organisms,
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
Al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: ocemn@univ.gda.pl

Keywords: Eriocheir sinensis, non-native species, Catadromous, temporary epibiota

Received 28 February 2007, revised 2 February 2007, accepted 6 February 2007.

This research was supported by grant No BW/13A0-5-0332-5 from the University of Gdańsk and conducted within the framework of project No 127/E-335/S/2004 from the Polish Ministry of Education and Science.
Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 is a non-native species found in European waters. Analyses of mitten crabs caught in brackish waters (Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland) and in freshwater (Havel River, Germany) have indicated that numerous epibionts (possibly temporary) inhabit the dense setal mats that cover the chelipeds. Of the 950 associates found on 22 crabs collected from brackish water, the most abundant were Nematoda (82.3%), followed by Bivalvia (10.3%), Crustacea (5.6%), Oligochaeta (1.2%) and Gastropoda (0.6%). In comparison, 1280 specimens (Chironomidae - 67.6% and Halacaridae - 32.4%), were identified from 13 crabs collected in freshwater. As this crab can migrate long distances, it is capable of transporting native and non-native species via its mittened claws to new habitats.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 427 KB

Dissemination of results in marine research

From researchers to primary school: dissemination of scientific research results on the beach. An experience of environmental education at Nefza, Tunisia
Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 145-157

Lucia Fanini1,*, Mohamed El Gtari2, Adnene Ghlala2, Traki El Gtari-Chaabkane3, Felicita Scapini1
1Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e Genetica "Leo Pardi",
Università di Firenze,
via Romana 17 50125, Florence, Italy;
e-mail: sandhopper@dbag.unifi.it
*corresponding author
2Unité de Recherche de Biologie Animale et Systématique évolutive, Faculté de Science de Tunis,
Campus Universitaire Manar 2092 Tunis, Tunisia
3Primary School "El Joumhouria",
Rue El Joumhouria, 9010 Nefza, Tunisia

Keywords: mediterranean coastal zone, sandy beaches, local stakeholders, primary school, environmental education

Received 8 January 2007, revised 15 January 2007, accepted 1 February 2007.
Within the framework of the MEDCORE project on the ecology and management of Mediterranean coastal areas we decided to include the local dissemination of scientific results in Tunisia. The involvement of a local public school, and the joint work of local teachers and of local and international researchers, was chosen as a dissemination method because of the role of the school as an educational centre and the natural interest and curiosity characterising the schoolchildren. As the subject of the experience of dissemination a beach-dune system was considered suitable because of it was near, familiar and easy to reach, and also because of the economic importance of such environments, which generate considerable income as a result of tourists frequenting them. In environmental education, however, less emphasis is placed on this particular environment. A test performed before and after a school trip to the beach showed an increase in knowledge among children about beach-dune systems. Correlations between the gender and background of the children with their previous knowledge and information acquired from the field experience were analysed, and found to be not significant. All the children were equally receptive to environmental issues, regardless of their gender or background (urban/rural environment). One of the main results obtained through this experience is the effectiveness of sharing knowledge with local people, as stakeholders of study sites. The next step in the process of disseminating scientific knowledge for the benefit of the local community should be to examine its possible long-term effects.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 469 KB


Bruno Voituriez: The Gulf Stream, IOC Ocean Forum Series, UNESCO Publishing, Paris, 2006, 221 pp., including 44 figures.
(review by Stanisław R. Massel)

Oceanologia 2007, 49(1), 159-161

    This monograph by Bruno Voituriez is published in the IOC Ocean Forum Series dedicated to the most important contemporary problems of the World Ocean. It is the result of a discussion between the members of the Club des Argonautes (the author is a member) and Erik Orsenna of the Académie Française.
    In his work, the author draws an elaborate portrait of the extraordinary natural phenomenon that is the Gulf Stream. This water flow has recently attracted a great deal of attention from both scientists and the general public in regard to its role in present and future climate dynamics.
    The text is organised into four basic chapters, along with an introduction and conclusion. A very comprehensive glossary and a list of useful publications are appended to the text...

full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 4.0), 50 KB