Oceanologia No. 47 (1) / 05





The Editor would like to thank all who in the year 2004 reviewed the papers submitted to Oceanologia.
The following reviewer's names are printed by their kind permission:
Prof. Eyvind Aas University of Oslo, Norway • Prof. Ferdinando Boero Lecce University, Italy • Prof. Jerzy Bolałek University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Jerzy Błażejowski University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Renato P. Camata University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA • Prof. Juliusz Chojnacki Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland • Dr Mary Culver NOAA Coastal Services Center, Charleston, USA • Prof. Roberto Danovaro Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Italy • Prof. Czesław Druet Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Res. Sci. Christopher Dungan Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Oxford, USA • Dr J. Cynan Ellis-Evans British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK • Prof. Jerzy Falandysz University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Kazimierz Furmańczyk University of Szczecin, Poland • Dr Herman G. Gade Geophysical Institute, Bergen, Norway • Prof. Robert Gilbert Queen's University, Kingston, Canada • Prof. Howard R. Gordon University of Miami, Coral Gables, USA • Prof. Jost Heintzenberg Leibniz-Insitute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany • Sr. Staff Chemist B. Michael Hovanec West Coast Analytical Service, Santa Fe Springs, USA • Prof. Adam Hulanicki Warsaw University, Poland • Prof. Ulrich Irmler Kiel Ecology-Centre at Kiel University, Germany • Doc. Andrzej Jankowski Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Dr Genrik S. Karabashev P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, Moscow • Prof. Isao Koike University of Tokyo, Japan • Dr Vladimir A. Kovalev RMRS Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, USA • Prof. Adam Krężel University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Erik Kristensen University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark • Dr Niels Kroer National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde, Denmark • Dr Andreas Lehmann Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Kiel, Germany • Prof. Ryszard Ligowski University of Łódź • Dr Vivian Lutz International Institute of Fisheries Research and Development, Mar del Plata, Argentina • Dr Alexander Marshak NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA • PhD Candidate Rebeca-Xena Martín Skilton Chemical and Environmental Research Institute of Barcelona, Spain • Prof. Stanisław R. Massel Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Prof. R. Michael McKay Bowling Green State University, USA • Prof. Mirosław Miętus Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Gdynia, Poland • Dr Curtis Mobley Sequoia Scentific, Inc., Bellevue, USA • Prof. Józef Mojski University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Edward C. Monahan University of Connecticut at Avery Point, USA • Dr James D. Moore University of California, Bodega Bay, USA • Prof. André Morel UPMC, Oceanological Observatory of Villefranche-sur-Mer, France • Dr Ignacio Moreno-Garrido Institute of Marine Sciences in Andalusia, Cádiz, Spain • Prof. Walter Munk University of California, San Diego, USA • Prof. Stanisław Musielak University of Szczecin, Poland • Prof. Jerzy Olszewski Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Prof. Jan Piechura Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Dr Jacek Piskozub Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Prof. Marcin Pliński University of Gdańsk, Poland • Dr Christa Pohl Baltic Sea Research Institute, Warnemünde, Germany • Prof. Zbigniew Pruszak Institute of Hydroengineering PAS, Gdańsk, Poland • Dr Patricia Quinn NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, USA • Prof. Maria Antónia Salgado University of Porto, Portugal • Res. Hydraulic Eng. William C. Seabergh US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, USA • Res. Sci. Jukka Seppälä Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki, Finland • Prof. Antoni Śliwiński University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Anders Stigebrandt Göteborg University, Sweden • Prof. Dariusz Stramski Scripps Institution of Oceanography at San Diego, La Jolla, USA • Prof. James P. M. Syvitski University of Colorado at Boulder, USA • Prof. Anna Szaniawska University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Jan Marcin Węsławski Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Priv.-Doz. Dr Karen Helen Wiltshire The Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Helgoland, Germany • Prof. Zbigniew Witek Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland • Prof. Maciej Wołowicz University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Bogdan Woźniak Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Prof. Fred Wulff Stockholm University, Sweden • Dr Oliver C. Zafiriou Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA.


Long period oscillations in the longshore current on a sandy, barred coast investigated with Singular Spectrum Analysis
Oceanologia 2005, 47(1), 5-25

Jarosława Kaczmarek, Grzegorz Różyński*, Zbigniew Pruszak
Institute of Hydroengineering, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Kościerska 7, PL-80-953 Gdańsk, Poland;
e-mail: grzegorz@ibwpan.gda.pl
*corresponding author

Keywords: longshore current, singular spectrum analysis, nearshore hydrodynamics, infragravity waves, beach processes

Received 13 December 2004, revised 11 February 2005, accepted 14 February 2005.

This study was conducted within the framework of grant No 5T07A01924, funded by the Committee of Scientific Research (KBN) and as part of the Institute of Hydroengineering PAS's (IBW PAN) statutory activities.
The presence of infragravity waves in nearshore regions can be sought in the records of both water levels and wave-driven longshore currents. For this reason, time series of such currents in close proximity to the shoreline were analysed using Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA). Simultaneously, the results obtained with this method were confronted with the output of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), which had previously been applied to this data. The records of longshore currents were collected on a daily basis during field experiments in the autumns of 2002 and 2003 with sampling rates of 3 Hz and 0.5 Hz. This produced a large data set that allowed for the use of an advanced signal processing technique, capable of extracting patterns characteristic of low-, medium- and high-frequency bands. It provided similar evidence to that produced by DWT for the existence of infragravity waves along a dissipative coast with multiple bars. The study also demonstrated the utility of SSA for studies on coastal hydrodynamics. It also showed up the better user-friendliness of DWT in terms of pattern extraction and interpretation. On the other hand, SSA demonstrated a higher precision of pattern extraction once the DWT output was known, which is a manifestation of the synergy of the two methods when applied jointly.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 988 KB

The dependence between bacterial production and environmental conditions in the Gulf of Gdańsk
Oceanologia 2005, 47(1), 27-45

Anetta Ameryk1, Beata Podgórska2, Zbigniew Witek1
1 Sea Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries, Oceanography and Marine Ecology,
Kołłataja 1, PL-81-332 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: anetta@mir.gdynia.pl
2 Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Genetics and Marine Biotechnology Department,
św. Wojciecha 5, PL-81-347 Gdynia, Poland

Keywords: bacterial production, bacterial to primary production ratio, Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic Sea

Received 17 November 2003, revised 14 December 2004, accepted 21 December 2004
Bacterial production, primary production and a number of other environmental factors were measured during six cruises in the Gulf of Gdańsk conducted in various seasons from 1995 to 2001. Bacterial production (BP) in the epipelagic layer ranged from 1.5% (April) to 80% (July) of the gross primary production (PP). Significant differences were observed between the BP/PP ratios in estuarine and open-water areas. The highest values were recorded in the coastal area and near the mouth of the river Vistula. It suggests that allochthonous organic matter has a great influence on BP. The correlations between particular parameters and regression analyses indicated that BP in the Gulf of Gdańsk depended on temperature, organic nitrogen concentration, PP, chlorophyll a concentration, organic phosphorus concentration, salinity and biochemical oxygen demand. Of all the independent variables, the temperature had the greatest impact on BP (R2 = 0.62). There was an inverse parabolic relationship between bacterial production and temperature. It appears that above a temperature of 12°C bacterial production depended on substrates to a higher degree than on temperature. The negative correlation between BP and concentrations of mineral nitrogen and phosphorus in the annual cycle were probably due to an indirect dependence. A multiple regression equation, which included temperature and organic phosphorus concentrations, explained 78% of the variation in BP.
Increasing BP resulted in an increasing biomass of bacterivorous nanoflagellates and of bacterivorous ciliates, which is indicative of bottom-up control in this segment of the trophic chain.

full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 379 KB

Nutrient flux fuels the summer primary productivity in the oligotrophic waters of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea
Oceanologia 2005, 47(1), 47-60

Mohammad I. Badran*, Mohammad Rasheed, Riyad Manasrah, Tariq Al-Najjar
Marine Science Station, Aqaba, University of Jordan & Yarmouk University,
PO Box 195, 77110 Aqaba, Jordan;
e-mail: abuadam@ju.edu.jo
*corresponding author; current address:
Visiting Faculty, Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences,
Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2115, USA

Keywords: diffusion model, eddy diffusivity, biological stress, chlorophyll a, thermohaline stratification

Received 22 November 2004, revised 14 February 2005, accepted 21 February 2005.
The thermohaline characteristics of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depict a well-defined seasonal pattern of winter mixing from December to April and summer stratification from May to November. This thermohaline structure is a major controlling factor of the nutrient, chlorophyll a and primary productivity seasonal cycles. The nitrate and chlorophyll a concentration records generated down to 200 m at a vertical resolution of 25 m - weekly during 1994, 1995 and every two weeks from April 1997 through to December 2000 - are employed to assess the nitrogen flux across the summer thermocline of the Gulf of Aqaba. The flux calculations are based on a simple diffusion model that incorporates the physical stress eddy diffusivity factor Kz and a biological stress factor k. Both Kz and k are calculated using the Michaelis-Menten equation and the nitrate concentration gradient. The total nitrate flux of the Gulf of Aqaba during the seven summer months (May-November) is estimated at 0.52 mole N m-2. In relation to established primary productivity values (75.5 g C m-2 (May November)-1) and the generated chlorophyll a records, this yields an f fraction of new to total primary production of 0.50. This relatively high f value is discussed with respect to the geophysical characteristics of the Gulf of Aqaba and similar oceanic basins. The remaining 50% is accounted for by cross-sectional flow from the relatively nutrient-rich coral reef coastal habitat and rapid recycling, triggered by high irradiance and water temperature.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 261 KB

Recent trends in the prevalence of neoplasia in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea)
Oceanologia 2005, 47(1), 61-74

Katarzyna Smolarz1,*, Catherine Thiriot-Quiévreux2, Maciej Wołowicz1
1Laboratory of Estuarine Ecology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: smok@sat.ocean.univ.gda.pl
*corresponding author
2Observatoire Océanologique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie,
CNRS INSU BP28, F-06230 Villefranche sur Mer, France

Keywords: disseminated neoplasia, prevalence of the cancer, Baltic clams, Gulf of Gdańsk, pollutants

Received 14 June 2004, revised 15 December 2004, accepted 17 January 2005.

This study was supported by funds from the Marie Curie Host Fellowships (No QLK5-CT-2001-60036) provided by the European Commission together with scholarships supported by the French Government and the University of Paris VI.
This study discusses the occurrence of neoplasia in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Gdańsk in recent years and investigates potential relationships between toxic compounds in the environment and the presence of the cancer. The disease was identified at four sampling stations during 1999-2002. Comparison with previous results highlighted the substantial prevalence of the tumour between 1998 and 2002. The prevalence of the cancer was strongly dependent on the sampling location (p > 0.001): it was highest at sampling point H45 (the deepest part of the gulf) and lowest at station PB30 (central part of the gulf). Monthly studies showed a trend towards an increasing prevalence of neoplasia during the warm months. However, over several sampling months no strong statistical correlation between the prevalence of the disease and the sampling time was found.
The results of the study suggest that several environmental factors may promote the progress of the cancer in M. balthica from the Gulf of Gdańsk: it is most probably an indirect effect of pollution, although causality cannot be proven at this stage. Seriously polluted and exhibiting a considerable asymmetry of contamination, the ecosystem of the gulf provides an ideal environment for testing potential cause-effect relationships between pollutants and their biological effects.

full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 224 KB

Physiological responses of the eustigmatophycean Nannochloropsis salina to aqueous diesel fuel pollution
Oceanologia 2005, 47(1), 75-92

Nagwa Gamal-El-Din Mohammady1,*, Yean-Chang Chen2, Abd-El-Ruhman Aly El-Mahdy3, Rania Farag Mohammad4
1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Muharram Beck, Alexandria University,
Alexandria, Egypt;
e-mail: nagwa_phyco@yahoo.com
*corresponding author
2Department of Aquaculture, National Taiwan Ocean University,
Keelung, Taiwan
3Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Nile Valley University,
Atbara, Sudan,
4Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Omar El-Mokhtar University,
El Baidaa, Libya

Keywords: diesel fuel pollution, physiological responses, Nannochloropsis salina

Received 4 August 2004, revised 12 January 2005, accepted 18 January 2005.
The marine eustigmatophycean microalga Nannochloropsis (Monallantus) salina Hibberd was cultivated in a batch culture in the presence of various concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of an aqueous extract of diesel fuel oil in order to assess the influence of the pollutant on the growth and certain physiological responses of the microalga. The growth data revealed a significant negative effect of the various pollutant concentrations on the algal cell number (p ≤ 0.05). However, at the mid-logarithmic growth phase (day 8), the algal cells were analysed for chlorophyll a, β-glucan, amino acid pool, C/N ratio and elemental composition. According to our results, N. salina was significantly affected by the pollution with regard to the different physiological parameters examined, and this significance may be negative, positive or variable. The effect of the pollutant on cellular β-glucan and the total amount of amino acids was negative; however, the composition of the cellular amino acid pool remained unaffected. A positive effect of the pollutant on cellular chl a and the C/N ratio was observed. In addition, the pollutant showed variable effects on the composition of different elements, as shown by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Also, an existence correlation between different elements was statistically reported.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 174 KB

Relationships between the dynamics of two Talitrus saltator populations and the impacts of activities linked to tourism
Oceanologia 2005, 47(1), 93-112

Lucia Fanini1, Carlos Martín Cantarino2, Felicita Scapini1
1Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence,
via Romana 17, I-50125 Florence, Italy;
e-mail: sandhopper@dbag.unifi.it
2Department of Ecology, University of Alicante,
Campus S. Vicente del Raspeig, ap. correos 99, E-03080 Alicante, Spain

Keywords: Talitrus saltator, beach management, tourism, natural Park, seasonality

Received 25 November 2004, revised 13 February 2005, accepted 21 February 2005.
The study considered two ecologically similar coastal areas in Tuscany (Italy). One site belongs to a protected natural area and the other one is in front of a camping site. We analysed the impact of human activities, such as trampling and mechanical beach cleaning, on Talitrus saltator. It turned out that the population density was affected in that it first disappeared from the area at the camping site, then recolonised it once the peak of the tourist season at the camping site had passed. The results confirm the sensitivity of this species and its plasticity in adapting to different conditions on the one hand, and the positive effects of diversification in resource management on the other hand.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 434 KB