Oceanologia No. 46 (1) / 04


Contents


Acknowledgement

Papers

Communications



Acknowledgement



As in previous years the Editor would like to thank all who reviewed the papers submitted to OCEANOLOGIA in 2003.
The following reviewer's names are printed by their kind permission: Prof. Bożena Bogaczewicz-Adamczak University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Joan Albaiges CID-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain • Dr Pekka Alenius Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki, Finland • Prof. Shimshon Belkin The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel • Prof. Marek Biziuk Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland • Prof. Juliusz Chojnacki Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland • Dr Edward D. Cokelet NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, USA • Prof. Jerzy Cyberski University of Gdańsk, Poland • Dr Cabell Davis Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA • Prof. Czesław Druet Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Prof. Jüri Elken Tallinn Technical University, Estonia • Dr Joanna Engström-Öst Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki, Finland • Doc. Hans-Peter Fagerholm Åbo Akademi University, Finland • Prof. Jerzy Falandysz University of Gdańsk, Poland • Dr Mark Fitzsimons University of Plymouth, UK • Prof. Elsina C. Flach Lundgren Stockholm University, Sweden • Prof. Laodong Guo University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA • Dr Hans-Harald Hinrichsen Institute for Marine Research at the University of Kiel, Germany • Prof. Thomas M. Iliffe Texas A&M University at Galveston, USA • Doc. Andrzej Jankowski Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Prof. Krzysztof Jażdżewski University of Łódź, Poland • Dr Jan Jędrasik University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Victor N. de Jonge University of Groningen, The Netherlands • Prof. Klaus Jürgens Baltic Sea Research Institute, Rostock, Germany • Prof. David M. Karl University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA • Prof. Romuald Klekowski International Ecology Centre PAS, Warsaw, Poland • Prof. Marianne Køie University of Copenhagen, Denmark Dr Marek Kowalewski University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Adam Krężel University of Gdańsk, Poland • Dr Magnus Larson Lund University, Sweden • Prof. Stanisław R. Massel Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Prof. Dimitrii N. Matorin M. V. Lomonosov State University, Moscow, Russia • Prof. Ian A. McLaren Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada • Prof. Krystyna Mędrzycka Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland • Prof. Mirosław Miętus Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Gdynia, Poland • Dr Esmeralda Millán The University of the Basque Country, San Sebastian, Spain • Prof. Józef Mojski University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Edward C. Monahan University of Connecticut at Avery Point, USA • Dr Alf Norkko Göteborg University, Sweden • Prof. Sergej Olenin Klaipeda University, Lithuania • Prof. Jerzy Olszewski Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Prof. Anders Omstedt Göteborg University, Sweden • Dr Mladen Picer Institute Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb, Croatia • Prof. Marcin Pliński University of Gdańsk, Poland • Dr Teresa Radziejewska University of Szczecin, Poland • Prof. Kaj Riska Helsinki University of Technology, Finland • Prof. Anders Stigebrandt Göteborg University, Sweden • Prof. Anna Szaniawska University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Piotr Szefer Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Romuald Szymkiewicz Gdańsk Technical University, Poland • Dr Jacek Urbański University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. David Turner Göteborg University, Sweden • Dr Antonio Varcasia University of Sassari, Italy • Dr Jan Warzocha Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland • Dr Norbert Wasmund Baltic Sea Research Institute, Warnemünde, Germany • Prof. Grzegorz Węgrzyn University of Gdańsk, Poland • Prof. Andrzej Witkowski University of Szczecin, Poland • Prof. Zbigniew Witek Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland • Prof. Bogdan Woźniak Institute of Oceanology PAS, Sopot, Poland • Dr W. Lindsey Zemke-White Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.


Papers


Circulation and winter deep-water formation in the northern Red Sea
Oceanologia 2004, no 46(1), pp. 5-23


Riyad Manasrah1,*, Mohammad Badran1, Hans Ulrich Lass2, Wolfgang Fennel2
1Marine Science Station, University of Jordan & Yarmouk University,
P.O. Box: 195, 77110 Aqaba, Jordan;
e-mail: rmanasrah.MSS@aseza-env.gov.jo
2Baltic Sea Research Institute,
Seestrasse 15, D-18119 Warnemünde, Germany
*corresponding author

Keywords: deep-water formation, circulation, eddies, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

Manuscript received 13 January 2004, reviewed 20 February 2004, accepted 24 February 2004.

This study was funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the cruise was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Science Foundation) under the leadership of the Red Sea Program (RSP).
Abstract
Water mass characteristics and circulation patterns in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea were studied for the first time during the r/v "Meteor" cruise leg 44/2 from February 21st to March 7th 1999 using temperature-salinity profiles and current observations. The deep water in the northern Red Sea had similar characteristics to the well-mixed upper 450 m of water in the Gulf of Aqaba. This indicates that the winter mixed waters of the Gulf of Aqaba contribute significantly to deep-water in the northern Red Sea. Mixing in the Gulf of Aqaba is an annually repeated event that starts with the cooling of the surface water during November-December and reaches a maximum, which in most years extends down the entire water column in March-April. Waters deeper than the mixed layer in the Gulf seems to be rather passive and play no specific role in water mass formation in the northern Red Sea. In contrast to the Gulf of Aqaba, the upper 200 m of the northern Red Sea were stratified (21.5-23.5oC, and 40.0-40.3 PSU). Stratification at the Strait of Tiran was weak (21.6-22.0oC, and 40.3-40.5 PSU) and disappeared abruptly in the Gulf of Aqaba (21.4-21.6oC, and 40.6-40.7 PSU). A well-developed cyclonic gyre with a diameter of about 50-60 km and maximum velocity of about 0.4 m s-1 was observed in the stratified upper 200 m of the northern Red Sea waters. The gyre may contribute to the preconditioning for intermediate water formation in the northern Red Sea.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 1 216 KB

Eutrophication problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt
Oceanologia 2004, no 46(1), pp. 25-44


Mohamed M. Dorgham1, Nagwa E. Abdel-Aziz2, Kamal Z. El-Deeb2, Mohamed A. Okbah2,
1Oceanography Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University,
EG-21511 Alexandria, Egypt;
e-mail: mdorgham10@hotmail.com
2National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries,
Alexandria, Egypt

Keywords: Alexandria Western Harbour, eutrophication, nutrients, water quality, plankton biomass

Manuscript received 23 June 2003, reviewed 22 September 2003, accepted 5 January 2004.
Abstract
Eutrophication-related problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria were studied monthly from April 1999 to March 2000. Variation in salinity appeared to be the key to all changes in water quality and plankton abundance in the harbour. Both at the surface and near the bottom the salinity was lower (annual average: 35.1 and 38.3 PSU respectively) than in the open sea (39 PSU). Dissolved oxygen levels indicated poor aeration conditions along the water column (2.3-3.98 mg l-1). Average pH values were approximately similar in the two layers (8.1 and 8 respectively) but exhibited different ranges of variations. Nutrient salts varied widely, often occurring in high concentrations, with ranges of 0.12-5.7 and 0.06-2.6 µM at the surface and the bottom respectively for phosphate, 0.21-20.46 and 0.25-18.12 µM for nitrate, 0.29-3.3 and 0.23-1.66 µM for nitrite, 0.56-57.46 and 2.32-43.73 µM for ammonia and 0.3-36.3 and 0.48-38.4 µM for silicate. As a result of nutrient enrichment, phytoplankton growth was very intensive, reflected by an abnormally high concentration of chlorophyll a (annual average: 33.82 µg l-1). At the same time the death of large numbers of phytoplankton cells could be inferred from the relatively large amount of phaeopigment (annual average: 10.39 µg l-1). The high levels of nutrient salts and phytoplankton biomass together serve as a good indicator of high eutrophication levels in the Western Harbour throughout the year. These conditions clearly affected the zooplankton stock, which varied between 5.8-93.6 × 103 indiv. m-3, although for most of the time values remained at a low level (annual average: 26 728 indiv. m-3).
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 183 KB


The dependence of body weight in copepodite stages of Pseudocalanus spp. on variations of ambient temperature and food concentration
Oceanologia 2004, no 46(1), pp. 45-63


Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: dzierzb@iopan.gda.pl


Keywords: Pseudocalanus spp., body weight, temperature, food

Manuscript received 9 September 2003, reviewed 5 March 2004, accepted 8 March 2004.
Abstract
Quantitative expressions are presented describing the effects of temperature and food concentration on the mean body weight of copepodite stages of Pseudocalanus spp. The calculations were made on the basis of experimental data from the literature for three geographically separate populations of Pseudocalanus from Puget Sound (Washington, USA), from the southern North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Relationships were obtained between the coefficient of daily exponential growth of body weight of Pseudocalanus sp. from Puget Sound and temperature in the 8-15.5oC range and food concentrations from 10 mgC m-3 to excess, as well as for Pseudocalanus elongatus from the southern North Sea at high food concentrations and in the 4-15oC temperature range. Also computed was the mean body weight for stages CII to CV of P. elongatus from the southern Baltic Sea at 5oC. The empirical models presented here can be used with good precision in mathematical models of pelagic communities. The results presented here indicate that Pseudocalanus sp. from Puget Sound (a species resembling Pseudocalanus minutus) is similar to P. elongatus from the southern North Sea and the English Channel with respect to growth parameters in the studied range of temperatures for excess food. P. elongatus collected in the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Gdańsk) differs from P. elongatus from the southern North Sea.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 203 KB


Potential rate of reproduction for some geographically separate populations of Pseudocalanus spp.
Oceanologia 2004, no 46(1), pp. 65-83


Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka, Andrzej Zieliński
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: dzierzb@iopan.gda.pl


Keywords: Pseudocalanus spp., egg production, temperature, body size

Manuscript received 18 November 2003, reviewed 5 January 2004, accepted 19 January 2004.
Abstract
Quantitative expressions are presented describing the potential reproductive rate per individual female of Pseudocalanus spp. in several different waters (not reduced by food limitation) as a function of both temperature and cephalothorax length of females (one equation for each studied region). The calculations were made for some geographically separate populations of Pseudocalanus spp. from southwest Baffin Island, Nova Scotia, Long Island Sound, Scotland, as well as the southern North Sea and its adjacent waters (e.g. the English Channel). On the basis of the findings presented in this work and from other studies, the reproductive rate was computed as the mean number of eggs per sac divided by 1.25 times the embryonic duration at the given temperature. Also computed was the amount of egg matter produced per day as a percentage of body carbon (and dry weight) of female weight for all localities. The relationships for females from the southern North Sea were obtained for "viable eggs", but they should be treated with reserve. A more suitable expression describing egg production in the southern North Sea is the equation for females from the English Channel obtained here. Our assumptions and approximations appear to predict quite well the temperature-length of female dependent daily rates of egg production of well-fed females of Pseudocalanus spp. for the above waters, and we suggest that they can be used to test the hypothesis more thoroughly.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 227 KB


Seasonal and annual changes in the macrozoobenthic populations of the Gulf of Gdańsk with respect to hypoxia and hydrogen sulphide
Oceanologia 2004, no 46(1), pp. 85-102


Urszula Janas, Julika Wocial, Anna Szaniawska
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: ula@sat.ocean.univ.gda.pl;


Keywords: macrozoobenthos, hypoxia, hydrogen sulphide, Macoma balthica, Gulf of Gdańsk

Manuscript received 10 March 2003, reviewed 1 December 2003, accepted 9 January 2004.

This research was supported by grant No. BW 1320-5-0008-3.
Abstract
This study was designed to investigate seasonal and annual changes in the benthic macrofauna in relation to changes in hydrogen sulphide concentration in the sediment and the oxygen content in the water column. Data were collected over a three-year period from 1994 to 1997. The benthic macrofauna inhabiting the sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk, in which H2S is permanently present, consists mostly of species with a high tolerance to oxygen deficiency and the presence of H2S. These species are: Macoma balthica, Harmothoe sarsi, Nereis diversicolor, Saduria entomon and Halicryptus spinulosus, as well as Pontoporeia femorata and Corophium volutator, which are more sensitive to these factors. In 1996-1997 a decline in the abundance of almost all benthic species, and especially of the bivalve M. balthica at all the stations was observed in comparison to 1994-1995.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 228 KB


Effect of ship shadow on in-water irradiance measurements
Oceanologia 2004, no 46(1), pp. 103-112


Jacek Piskozub
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: piskozub@iopan.gda.pl


Keywords: marine optics, instrumental effects, irradiance, self-shading

Manuscript received 14 January 2004, reviewed 30 January 2004, accepted 4 February 2004.
Abstract
Calculations of the effect of the ship's shadow on in-water irradiance measurement errors were performed with a Monte Carlo radiance transfer algorithm. The algorithm contained the Cox-Munk wave-slope probability function. A simple 3-D model of the rectangular underwater part of a ship was used. The effect was calculated as a function of sea-water absorption, surface roughness (depending on an assumed wind velocity of up to 15 m s-1) with various wind velocities and directions, length and depth of the ship, distance of instrument from the ship, and bow-to-sun angle
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 127 KB


Inflow waters in the deep regions of the southern Baltic Sea - transport and transformations (corrected version)
Oceanologia 2004, no 46(1), pp. 113-141


Jan Piechura, Agnieszka Beszczyńska-Möller
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: piechura@iopan.gda.pl


Keywords: Baltic Sea, inflow water, transport, mixing

Manuscript received 29 September 2003, reviewed 17 October 2003, accepted 20 October 2003.

This paper was presented at the Baltic Sea Science Congress (BSSC) in August 2003 in Helsinki.
Abstract
A medium-sized inflow (about 200 km3 according to IOW data, - personal communication) of saline water into the southern Baltic Sea occurred during January 2003. Unlike any previously observed inflow, this one brought very cold water, of temperatures around 1-2oC and less. Since the temperature of the deep water in the southern Baltic before the inflow was exceptionally high (11-12oC), the inflowing waters produced dramatic changes and a steep temperature gradient. The movement of the inflowing waters through the deep basins and channels of the Baltic Sea from the Arkona Basin to the Gdańsk Deep during next 4-8 months is described. Frequent mesoscale structures and intensive mixing followed the eastward transport of the inflow water, particularly in the Bornholm Deep and Słupsk Furrow. The present paper is based on data collected during 6 cruises r/v "Oceania" between December 2002 and August 2003. The last cruise in August took place in order to assess the long-term consequences of the inflow.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 15 716 KB


Communications



Palaemon elegans - a new component of the Gulf of Gdańsk macrofauna
Oceanologia 2004, no 46(1), pp. 143-146


Urszula Janas1, Tomasz Zarzycki1, Paweł Kozik2
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,
al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: ula@sat.ocean.univ.gda.pl
2Gdynia Aquarium, Marine Fisheries Institute,
al. Zjednoczenia 1, PL-81-345 Gdynia, Poland


Keywords: Palaemon elegans, Baltic Sea, Gulf of Gdańsk

Manuscript received 2 February 2004, reviewed 27 February 2004, accepted 2 March 2004.

This research was supported by European Community project under 5th FP, contract No. BALTDER EVK3-CT-2002-80005.
Abstract
The present paper reports on the occurrence of the prawn Palaemon elegans Rathke in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk in the years 2002-2003, and in other regions of the Baltic Sea as recorded by various authors.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 497 KB


A novel polymorphic mtDNA marker for population studies of the pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Crustacea, Penaeidae)
Oceanologia 2004, no 46(1), pp. 147-151


Michał Grabowski1,*, Walter D. Grater2, Kenneth C. Stuck2
1Department of Invertebrate Zoology & Hydrobiology, University of Łódź,
Banacha 12/16, PL-90-237 Łódź, Poland;
e-mail: michalg@biol.uni.lodz.pl
2Gulf Coast Research Laboratory,
University of Southern Mississippi, College of Marine Sciences,
P.O. Box 7000, Ocean Springs, MS 39566-7000
*corresponding author


Keywords: AT-reach region, genetic markers, population structure, Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico

Manuscript received 17 February 2004, reviewed 27 February 2004, accepted 2 March 2004.

Research supported by the Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN): grant No. 6PO4F05116.
Abstract
The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, is one of the most important shrimp species commercially harvested along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of the US. In this study we developed a mitochondrial marker suitable for population studies of the species. A 611-617 bp hypervariable portion of the AT-rich region of the mt genome was amplified and sequenced. The 617 bp long consensus sequence contained 15 polymorphic insertion/deletion sites and 165 polymorphic substitution sites. Kimura 2-parameter distances ranged from 0.00 to 0.06 with a mean of 0.02. Among the 104 sequences, 100 haplotypes were counted if all mutations were included. If transitions were omitted, 34 haplotypes were observed. The results indicate that the hypervariable portion of the AT-rich region may be an effective marker for revealing the genetic structure of the pink shrimp off the southeast US.
full, complete article (PDF - compatibile with Acrobat 3.0), 89 KB