Oceanologia No. 45 (3) / 03





Dependence of the surf zone aerosol on wind direction and wind speed at a coastal site on the Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2003, 45(3), 359-371
Tymon Zieliński
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: tymon@iopan.gda.pl
Keywords: Aerosol, wind, surf zone, lidar, southern Baltic Sea Manuscript received 29 May 2003, reviewed 5 August 2003, accepted 14 August 2003.
Since 1992 lidar-based measurements have been carried out under various meteorological conditions and at various times of the year. The aerosol optical properties were determined in the marine boundary layer as a function of altitude using such factors as wind direction, duration and velocity and aerosol size distribution and concentration. It was confirmed that in all cases, the total aerosol concentration, size distribution and aerosol extinction increase with wind speed but decrease with altitude. In the range of wind velocities from 1 to 15 m s-1 the mean aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere (VIS) obtained from the lidar varied from 0.1 to 0.38 for offshore winds and from 0.01 to about 0.1 for onshore winds, while the Ångström parameter for VIS oscillated around 0.65 for onshore winds and around 1 for offshore winds. Both parameters depended strongly on the history of the air mass above the Baltic Sea. Such aerosol optical thicknesses are in agreement with those obtained by other researchers in the Baltic Sea area.
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Adsorptive properties of natural water surfactant films. Dead Vistula catchment water studies
Oceanologia 2003, 45(3), 373-394
Stanisław J. Pogorzelski, Anna D. Kogut
Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdańsk,
Wita Stwosza 57, PL-80-952 Gdańsk, Poland;
e-mail: fizsp@univ.gda.pl
Keywords: North Sea, modelling, instruments, methods Manuscript received 19 February 2003, reviewed 16 June 2003, accepted 18 July 2003. The study was supported by grant BW/5200-5-0320-2 from the Polish Council for Scientific Research (KBN) and carried out in part within the framework of the scientific activity of the University of Gdańsk (supported from DS/5200-4-0024-03).
The paper contains the results of natural film experiments carried out on inland waters in the Dead Vistula (Martwa Wisła) catchment area during 1999-2002 using the integrated Langmuir trough-Wilhelmy plate system, which "cuts out" an undisturbed film-covered area without any physicochemical sample processing. The static film parameters result from the generalized scaling procedures applied to the surface pressure-area isotherms. They appear to correspond well to observations of the film composition Alim, MW, Eisoth, film solubility and the miscibility of its components (via R, ΔSc and y factors), and surface concentration Πeq, Γeq. A novel approach is presented for the adsorption dynamics on the basis of the mixed kinetic-diffusion model and analyses of the dynamic surface pressure plots, which leads to the determination of the effective relative diffusion coefficient Deff / D and activation energy barrier Ea / RT. There is reason to believe that certain classes of film-forming components or "end-members" may dominate the static and dynamic surface properties. Some of these substances can be used as source-specific surface-active biomarkers to trace temporal and spatial changes due to environmental factors or the production of biological matter. The concept was tested for the Dead Vistula river and its tributaries. The results demonstrate that natural films are a complex mixture of biopolymeric molecules covering a wide range of solubilities, surface activities and molecular masses with an apparent structural film architecture. Such studies could lead to the development of film structure parameters - indicators of ecosystem quality and the state of the environment.
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Practical applications of the multi-component marine photosynthesis model (MCM)
Oceanologia 2003, 45(3), 395-423
Dariusz Ficek2, Roman Majchrowski2, Mirosława Ostrowska1, Sławomir Kaczmarek1, Bogdan Woźniak1, Jerzy Dera1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland
2Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Pedagogical Academy in Słupsk , Arciszewskiego 22 B, PL-76-200 , Poland;
e-mail: darek@wsp..pl
Keywords: Bio-optical modelling, quantum yield of photosynthesis, primary production, inorganic nitrogen, tropical zone, temperate zone, polar zone Manuscript received 18 July 2003, reviewed 5 August 2003, accepted 19 August 2003. This work was carried out within the framework of IO PAN's statutory research, and also as part of project PZB-KBN 056/PO4/2001/3 of the Institute of Physics, Pomeranian Pedagogical Academy in Słupsk .
This paper describes the applications and accuracy analyses of our multi-component model of marine photosynthesis, given in detail in Woźniak et al. (2003). We now describe an application of the model to determine quantities characterising the photosynthesis of marine algae, especially the quantum yield of photosynthesis and photosynthetic primary production. These calculations have permitted the analysis of the variability of these photosynthesis characteristics in a diversity of seas, at different seasons, and at different depths. Because of its structure, the model can be used as the "marine part" of break a "satellite" algorithm for monitoring primary production in the sea (the set of input data necessary for the calculations can be determined with remote sensing methods). With this in mind, in the present work, we have tested and verified the model using empirical data. The verification yielded satisfactory results: for example, the statistical errors in estimates of primary production in the water column for Case 1 Waters do not exceed 45%. Hence, this model is far more accurate than earlier, less complex models hitherto applied in satellite algorithms.
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ADCP-referenced geostrophic velocity and transport in the West Spitsbergen Current
Oceanologia 2003, 45(3), 425-435
Robert Osiński, Piotr Wieczorek, Agnieszka Beszczyńska-Möller, Ilona Goszczko
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: roberto@iopan.gda.pl
Keywords: Geostrophic flow, ADCP and CTD measurements, Arctic circulation, baroclinic and barotropic components of velocity Manuscript received 4 March 2003, reviewed 22 May 2003, accepted 10 July 2003.
During the summer of 2000 and 2002 (June-July) the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) was investigated by the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences. CTD and current measurements by a vessel-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) were performed along three transects perpendicular to the WSC main stream and covering the region from 76°30' N to 78°20' N and from 02°30' E to 15° E. In general, the geostrophic, baroclinic flow patterns and the ADCP-measured currents were found to be in good agreement but measured current velocities were significantly higher than calculated values. This fact supports earlier observations that the barotropic component is dominant in the WSC. Since ADCP has a better spatial resolution than CTD records, the West Spitsbergen Current could be investigated and described in much greater detail than before.
  The main stream of Atlantic Water is topographically steered by the continental slope (isobars 800-2000 m) and the complex, multistream structure of the West Spitsbergen Current is clearly visible. The absolutely referenced total geostrophic transport is about three times higher than the estimated value assuming the level of no motion lies at 1000 m.
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The relationship between dissolved carbohydrates and carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the salinity gradient of the Pomeranian Bight (southern Baltic)
Oceanologia 2003, 45(3), 437-452
Monika Nausch, Eberhard Kerstan
Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestrasse 15, DE-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany;
e-mail: monika.nausch@io-warnemuende.de
Keywords: Dissolved carbohydrates, glucosidase activity, glucosaminidase activity, salinity gradient, Baltic Sea Manuscript received 17 February 2003, reviewed 7 May 2003, accepted 12 May 2003.
From 1994 to 1996 changes in the concentrations of dissolved mono- (MCHO) and total dissolved polysaccharides (TCHO) as well as the activities of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes α- and β-glucosidase, glucosaminidase) were investigated during mixing of water from the River Odra and the open Pomeranian Bight. This study addresses the question of whether their distribution was a result of physical dilution alone or if biological interactions were detectable.
  Within the salinity gradient, ranging from 1.9 to 7.8 PSU, TCHO declined from 13.2 µmol l-1 near the Świna mouth to 2.8 µmol l-1 after mixing. Concentrations of MCHO decreased from 3.4 µmol l-1 to 1.1 µmol l-1 but its distribution pattern varied more between summer and autumn than that of TCHO. The hydrolysis rate (Hr) by glucosidase and glucosaminidase activities was reduced from 13.9% h-1 to 0.3% h-1 and 9.9% h-1 to 0.2% h-1, respectively, and correlated with the uptake rate of glucose (To) by bacteria. In summer, the To/Hr ratio increased from about 1.2 to 29.4, mainly because of stronger decreases in Hr than in To. It was shown that the relationship between enzymatic release and uptake of carbohydrates influences the concentration of dissolved carbohydrates within the salinity gradient. Most probably, the decrease in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes is the result of reduced substrate stimulation and the lower number of particle-associated bacteria.
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The determination of total protein, total soluble carbohydrate and pigment contents of some macroalgae collected from Gemlik-Karacaali (Bursa) and Erdek-Ormanlı (Balikesir) in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey
Oceanologia 2003, 45(3), 453-471
Şükran Dere, Nurhayat Dalkiran, Didem Karacaoğlu, Gamze Yildiz, Egemen Dere
Uludağ University, Art and Science Faculty, Biology Department, TR-16059 Görükle/Bursa, Turkey;
e-mail: sdere@uludag.edu.tr
Keywords: Total protein, total soluble carbohdrate, pigments, seaweeds Manuscript received 4 April 2003, reviewed 10 July 2003, accepted 12 August 2003.
In this study, 12 taxa from the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were collected from different depths at Gemlik-Karacaali and Erdek-Ormanlı. A total of 175 specimens from these divisions were used to determine Total Protein (TP), Total Soluble Carbohydrate (TSCH) and Chlorophyll a (Chl a), Chlorophyll b (Chl b), Chlorophyll c (Chl c), total carotenoid (Car) contents and Chl b / Chl a, Chl c / Chl a, Car / Chl a, Car / Chl b, Car / Chl c ratios. TP, TSCH and pigment contents varied significantly with respect to the algal taxa, stations and depth distribution. In addition, individual differences were important in all of the measured parameters.
  The maximum TP contents (0.94%-31.03%) were determined in some of the Rhodophyta. In some green seaweeds belonging to the genus Ulva L., the TP content was determined between 2.9%-28.1%. Lower TP contents were determined in Cystoseira barbata (Good) C. Agardh (1.1%-4.3%). In contrast to TP contents, TSCH values were very low; maximum TSCH were determined in Ulva species, as were protein contents. In conclusion, the variations in TP, TSCH and pigment in 12 taxa of macroalgae were analysed according to station, depth, and environment.
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Influence of bacterial activities on nitrogen uptake rates determined by the application of antibiotics
Oceanologia 2003, 45(3), 473-489
Clavery Tungaraza1,*, Natacha Brion1, Véronique Rousseau2, Willy Baeyens1, Leo Goeyens1
1Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laboratorium Analytische Chemie, Pleinlaan 2, BE-1050 Brussel, Belgium
2Université Libre de Bruxelles, Ecologie des Systèmes Aquatiques C.P. 221, BE-1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
*current contact address: Sokoine University of Agriculture - Mazimbu, P.O Box 3038, Morogoro, Tanzania;
e-mail: tungaraza@suanet.ac.tz
Keywords: Bacteria, phytoplankton, nitrogenous nutrients, uptake rates Manuscript received 6 June 2002, reviewed 29 July 2002, accepted 14 April 2003.
The influence of bacterial activities on inorganic nutrients has always affected total phytoplankton uptake rates owing to the absence of a reliable method that can exclude these effects. The use of natural samples to determine the contribution of bacterial activities has been based on the size fractionation method which, unfortunately, is encumbered with uncertainties, especially because of the size overlap between bacteria and phytoplankton communities. In this paper, the results are reported of an estimation of bacterial activities by the use of inhibitors (antibiotics). It was shown that the contribution of bacterial activities to the uptake of nitrogenous nutrients was highest for ammonium (79%), followed by nitrate (72%) and urea (62%). In a second set of experiments the concentration of ammonium was raised by 5 µM. This was done to avoid nutrient limitation resulting from the absence of recycled nutrients following the addition of antibiotics and the maximum contribution of bacterial activity to the uptake rate of ammonium increased to 87%. It can be concluded that the use of inhibitors is a good method, a reliable alternative to the fractionation method. However, it is important to note that inhibitors can affect both phytoplankton growth and the nutrient recycling process. Our results indicate that the application of antibiotics had measurable effects not only on the target bacteria but also on the uptake behaviour of phytoplankton. Our observations were therefore limited to the period when there was no effect on the phytoplankton, as was demonstrated by a carbon protein incorporation experiment.
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PCBs in phytoplankton in the Odra Estuary
Oceanologia 2003, 45(3), 491-506
Joanna Konat-Stepowicz, Grażyna Kowalewska
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-712 Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: kowalewska@iopan.gda.pl
Keywords: PCBs, phytoplankton, Odra Estuary, Baltic Sea Manuscript received 3 June 2003, reviewed 11 July 2003, accepted 18 July 2003.
Eleven PCB congeners were determined in phytoplankton samples collected from the Odra Estuary at 9 stations in 2001-2002. The PCB concentrations were related to the temperature, turbidity, salinity, oxygen and redox potential of the water as well as to the pigment content in the samples. The results indicate that phytoplankton and the detritus derived from it play a crucial role in the distribution of PCBs, their transfer from the water column to sediments and from the Estuary to the sea. The species composition of the phytoplankton occurring in this area could also be very important as regards the sorption of PCBs.
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The invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, in Puck Bay
Oceanologia 2003, 45(3), 507-510
Anna Szaniawska, Tomasz Łapucki, Monika Normant
Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, al. Marszalka Pilsudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland;
e-mail: anna@sat.ocean.univ.gda.pl
Keywords: Gammarus tigrinus, alien species, Baltic Sea Manuscript received 14 January 2003, reviewed 23 May 2003, accepted 5 June 2003. This research was supported by the BALTDER project funded by the European Community under contract number EVK3-CT-2002-80005.
The paper is a report on the occurrence of the species Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, in the coastal waters of Puck Bay.
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