Oceanologia No. 39 (2) / 97


Prof. Krystyna Wiktor (Obituary)



Prof. Krystyna Wiktor (Obituary) by Marcin Plinski
Oceanologia 1997, no. 39 (2), pp. 113-116
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Sławomir Kaczmarek
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot

Olga J. Koblentz-Mishke
Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Stanisław Ochocki, Jan Nakonieczny, Henryk Renk
Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia

Primary production in the eastern and southern Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 1997, no. 39 (2), pp. 117-135 Keywords: Primary production; Spatial distribution; Baltic Sea

Manuscript received April 29, 1997, in final form June 3, 1997.
The results of long-term measurements of the photosynthetic primary production in the Baltic Sea have been collected (over 800 daily values from the 1968-1991). During this period substantial eutrophication of the sea was found to have taken place, leading to an annual increase in production of between 5.2 and 10 g C m-2 in consecutive years, depending on the area. Taking this process into account, a map of annual production in 1991 was prepared. This shows the production in the sea to be spatially highly diverse, a fact which can probably be explained by the influence of the dynamics of nutrient-carrying water masses.
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Dorota Napierska
Biological Station, Gdańsk University, Gdańsk-Sobieszewo

Marie T. Thebault
Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, College de France, Concarneau, France

Janusz Pempkowiak
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot

Edward Skorkowski
Marine Biology Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdynia

Comparison of short-term cadmium poisoning in the shrimp Crangon crangon from the Baltic Sea and the shrimp Palaemon serratus from the Atlantic Ocean with cadmium bioaccumulation and malic enzyme activity in abdomen muscle

Oceanologia 1997, no. 39 (2), pp. 137-146 Keywords: Cadmium poisoning; Shrimp; C. crangon; P. serratus; Abdomen muscle; Malic enzyme Manuscript received January 22, 1997, in final form March 17, 1997.
Shrimps were exposed to various concentrations of CdCl2 under laboratory conditions for 96 h. Although kept at the same Cd2+ concentration but at different salinities - C. crangon in Baltic seawater (6 PSU) and P. serratus in Atlantic water (36 PSU) - the shrimps accumulated a Cd2+ level in abdomen muscle which was much higher in the animals kept at the lower salinities than in those at the higher ones. The same Cd2+ bioaccumulation of ca 80 ng g-1 w.w. of abdomen muscle were found in C. crangon kept in 0.2 mg dm-3 of CdCl2 in Baltic seawater and in P. serratus kept in 2 mg dm-3 of CdCl2 in Atlantic water. In both cases the NADP-dependent malic enzyme activity per g w.w. of shrimp abdomen muscle was higher by ca 150% in animals kept at a CdCl2 concentration close to LC50 as compared to the control groups.
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Joanna Kożuch, Iwona Wilkowska, Janusz Pempkowiak
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot

The kinetics of cadmium accumulation and loss from Mytilus trossulus in the presence of marine humic substances
Oceanologia 1997, no. 39 (2), pp. 147-156 Keywords: Mytilus trossulus; Cadmium; Radiotracer; Accumulation; Depuration; Humic substances; Temperature Manuscript received February 28, 1997, in final form April 4, 1997.
The accumulation and loss of cadmium (Cd) by the Baltic blue mussel Mytilus trossulus in the presence of marine humic substances (HS) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The organisms were exposed to Baltic Sea water (salinity 7.0 PSU, pH 7.9) containing cadmium (50 g Cd dm-3) or radiocadmium (9 kBq 115mCd dm-3) and humic substances (0.0-7.2 mg HS dm-3). Experiments were carried out in seawater at two different constant temperatures (6oC 1oC or 15oC 1oC). The exposure time ranged from 8 to 21 days. It was found that marine humic substances stimulate cadmium accumulation by the mussels; however, the effect was strongly modified by temperature. At 6oC cadmium was preferably accumulated in the gills while at 15oC the metal was stored mainly in the hepatopancreas. Two pools of cadmium accumulated by Mytilus trossulus were detected. Cadmium adsorbed to the shell was desorbed quickly and efficiently after the mussels, previously grown in seawater containing an elevated metal concentration (8 days, 50 g Cd dm-3 or 9 kBq 115m Cd dm-3), had been transferred to natural seawater (60 days, 0.03 g Cd dm-3, 0 kBq 115m Cd dm-3). The other pool of cadmium, accumulated in the soft tissue of the mussels, remained intact after depuration experiments lasting several weeks. Humic substances had no effect on the depuration of cadmium from either pool.
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Joanna Kożuch, Janusz Pempkowiak, Gotfryd Kupryszewski
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot,

Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski
Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University, Gdańsk

Joanna Smol
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan

Analysis of ferritin-type proteins in the hepatopancreas of Baltic blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus)
Oceanologia 1997, no. 39 (2), pp. 157-162

Keywords: Mytilus trossulus; Ferritin; Capillary electrophoresis Manuscript received May 13, 1997, in final form June 20, 1997.
Ferritin is a protein able to store and transport not only iron, but also, though to a lesser extent, some other heavy metals, including cadmium. This study concerned the analysis of ferritin-type proteins in a dominant species of the southern Baltic zoobenthos, the blue mussel Mytilus trossulus. Proteins were isolated by precipitation from homogenised mussel hepatopancreases. The protein samples were heated (70 oC) and acidified (pH 4.5). Then the proteins with a molecular weight close to that of plant ferritin were separated by ultracentrifugation. These preparations were compared using capillary electrophoresis with plant ferritins isolated from lupin (Lupinus luteus) and amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus). The electrophoregrams obtained revealed that the hepatopancreas of the Baltic blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus) contains a protein displaying the properties of plant ferritin.
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Sergey I. Pogosyan
Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow

Marina A. Sivchenko, Viktor N. Maximov
Department of Ecology and Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow

Mirosława Ostrowska
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot

Physiological heterogeneity of an algal population: classification of Scenedesmus quadricauda cenobia by the features of their photosynthetic apparatus
Oceanologia 1997, no. 39 (2), pp. 163-175 Keywords: Chlorophyll; Fluorescence; Induction curves cluster analysis Manuscript received April 25, 1997, in final form June 12, 1997.
An analysis of the typological composition of individual cenobia of the microalga Scenedescemus quadricauda using typification of chlorophyll fluorescence induction curves is presented. Cluster analysis was applied to separate various types of induction curves. The 12 representative types of fluorescence induction curves of S. quadricauda are given. The possibility of division into separate clusters confirms the assumption of the discrete states of the photosynthetic apparatus. The connection between the functional structure of the population and its growth stage can be established.
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Justyna Miac, Małgorzata Groth, Maciej Wołowicz
Institute of Oceanography, Gdańsk University, Gdynia

Seasonal changes in the Mya arenaria (L.) population from Inner Puck Bay
Oceanologia 1997, no. 39 (2), pp. 177-195

Keywords: Mya arenaria; Population dynamics; Biochemical composition; Inner Puck Bay Manuscript received April 4, 1997, in final form May 20, 1997.
Morphometric relationships, the growth rate, sex distribution and annual fluctuation in dry flesh weight, biochemical composition and energy value of the sublittoral bivalve Mya arenaria (L.) from Inner Puck Bay were studied from May 1994 to April 1995. M. arenaria grows rapidly during the first year of its life, after which the growth rate decreases. The oldest individual was 5 years old and 53 mm long. Judging from the sex distribution and analysis of biochemical composition, the soft-shell clam breeds in June-July. Analysis of the growth rate and the age distribution confirms the theories that specimens of M. arenaria found in low latitudes reach a smaller maximum size and grow more slowly than those living in higher latitudes. The biochemical composition was determined in the 20-30 mm length class. The mean percentages of the main components of dry flesh were: proteins 47.54 6.0 (male), 51.28 7.7 (female); carbohydrates 9.28 3.7 (male), 10.40 4.0 (female); glycogen 5.74 2.8 (male), 6.72 3.5 (female); lipids 8.67 1.8 (male), 8.79 1.3 (female). Analysis of lipid and carbohydrate (glycogen) content in tissues of the soft-shell clam yielded the highest values in the residue (gonads and hepatopancreas). The lipid level is much higher in early spring, before spawning, than in autumn, when gonad development begins. The highest energy values are reported for August (20.82 J mg-1 in both sexes), the lowest for October (14.38 J mg-1 in males and 14.98 J mg-1 in females). Seasonal changes in energy values are mainly connected with the availability of food and reproduction cycle.
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Henryk Gurgul
Marine Physics Department, University of Szczecin, Szczecin

Henryk Arctowski and Antoni Dobrowolski in the hundreth anniversary of 'Belgica' expedition to Antarctica
Oceanologia 1997, no. 39 (2), pp. 197-199
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